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NameDihydrofolate reductase
Synonyms
  • 1.5.1.3
Gene NameDHFR
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0036993|Dihydrofolate reductase
MVGSLNCIVAVSQNMGIGKNGDLPWPPLRNEFRYFQRMTTTSSVEGKQNLVIMGKKTWFS
IPEKNRPLKGRINLVLSRELKEPPQGAHFLSRSLDDALKLTEQPELANKVDMVWIVGGSS
VYKEAMNHPGHLKLFVTRIMQDFESDTFFPEIDLEKYKLLPEYPGVLSDVQEEKGIKYKF
EVYEKND
Number of residues187
Molecular Weight21452.61
Theoretical pI7.6
GO Classification
Functions
  • folic acid binding
  • mRNA binding
  • NADPH binding
  • methotrexate binding
  • drug binding
  • dihydrofolate reductase activity
Processes
  • regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • tetrahydrofolate metabolic process
  • regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle
  • oxidation-reduction process
  • axon regeneration
  • vitamin metabolic process
  • tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic process
  • water-soluble vitamin metabolic process
  • glycine biosynthetic process
  • mitotic cell cycle
  • regulation of removal of superoxide radicals
  • positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity
  • nucleotide biosynthetic process
  • response to methotrexate
  • dihydrofolate metabolic process
  • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle
  • one-carbon metabolic process
  • folic acid metabolic process
  • tetrahydrofolate biosynthetic process
  • nitric oxide metabolic process
Components
  • cytosol
  • nucleoplasm
General FunctionNadph binding
Specific FunctionKey enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID182724
UniProtKB IDP00374
UniProtKB Entry NameDYR_HUMAN
Cellular LocationNot Available
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016067|Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)
ATGGTTGGTTCGCTAAACTGCATCGTCGCTGTGTCCCAGAACATGGGCATCGGCAAGAAC
GGGGACCTGCCCTGGCCACCGCTCAGGAATGAATTCAGATATTTCCAGAGAATGACCACA
ACCTCTTCAGTAGAAGGTAAACAGAATCTGGTGATTATGGGTAAGAAGACCTGGTTCTCC
ATTCCTGAGAAGAATCGACCTTTAAAGGGTAGAATTAATTTAGTTCTCAGCAGAGAACTC
AAGGAACCTCCACAAGGAGCTCATTTTCTTTCCAGAAGTCTAGATGATGCCTTAAAACTT
ACTGAACAACCAGAATTAGCAAATAAAGTAGACATGGTCTGGATAGTTGGTGGCAGTTCT
GTTTATAAGGAAGCCATGAATCACCCAGGCCATCTTAAACTATTTGTGACAAGGATCATG
CAAGACTTTGAAAGTGACACGTTTTTTCCAGAAATTGATTTGGAGAAATATAAACTTCTG
CCAGAATACCCAGGTGTTCTCTCTGATGTCCAGGAGGAGAAAGGCATTAAGTACAAATTT
GAAGTATATGAGAAGAATGATTAA
GenBank Gene IDJ00140
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDDHFR
HGNC IDHGNC:2861
Chromosome Location5
Locus5q11.2-q13.2
References
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  2. Masters JN, Attardi G: The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the human dihydrofolic acid reductase. Gene. 1983 Jan-Feb;21(1-2):59-63. 6687716
  3. Yang JK, Masters JN, Attardi G: Human dihydrofolate reductase gene organization. Extensive conservation of the G + C-rich 5' non-coding sequence and strong intron size divergence from homologous mammalian genes. J Mol Biol. 1984 Jun 25;176(2):169-87. 6235374
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  7. Banka S, Blom HJ, Walter J, Aziz M, Urquhart J, Clouthier CM, Rice GI, de Brouwer AP, Hilton E, Vassallo G, Will A, Smith DE, Smulders YM, Wevers RA, Steinfeld R, Heales S, Crow YJ, Pelletier JN, Jones S, Newman WG: Identification and characterization of an inborn error of metabolism caused by dihydrofolate reductase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Feb 11;88(2):216-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.01.004. 21310276
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  9. McEntee G, Minguzzi S, O'Brien K, Ben Larbi N, Loscher C, O'Fagain C, Parle-McDermott A: The former annotated human pseudogene dihydrofolate reductase-like 1 (DHFRL1) is expressed and functional. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 13;108(37):15157-62. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1103605108. Epub 2011 Aug 26. 21876184
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  15. Cody V, Galitsky N, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Rosowsky A, Blakley RL: Comparison of two independent crystal structures of human dihydrofolate reductase ternary complexes reduced with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and the very tight-binding inhibitor PT523. Biochemistry. 1997 Nov 11;36(45):13897-903. 9374868
  16. Gangjee A, Vidwans AP, Vasudevan A, Queener SF, Kisliuk RL, Cody V, Li R, Galitsky N, Luft JR, Pangborn W: Structure-based design and synthesis of lipophilic 2,4-diamino-6-substituted quinazolines and their evaluation as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductases and potential antitumor agents. J Med Chem. 1998 Aug 27;41(18):3426-34. 9719595
  17. Klon AE, Heroux A, Ross LJ, Pathak V, Johnson CA, Piper JR, Borhani DW: Atomic structures of human dihydrofolate reductase complexed with NADPH and two lipophilic antifolates at 1.09 a and 1.05 a resolution. J Mol Biol. 2002 Jul 12;320(3):677-93. 12096917
  18. Cody V, Galitsky N, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Gangjee A: Analysis of two polymorphic forms of a pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine N9-C10 reversed-bridge antifolate binary complex with human dihydrofolate reductase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Apr;59(Pt 4):654-61. Epub 2003 Mar 25. 12657784
  19. Cody V, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Gangjee A: Analysis of three crystal structure determinations of a 5-methyl-6-N-methylanilino pyridopyrimidine antifolate complex with human dihydrofolate reductase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Sep;59(Pt 9):1603-9. Epub 2003 Aug 19. 12925791
  20. Cody V, Luft JR, Pangborn W, Gangjee A, Queener SF: Structure determination of tetrahydroquinazoline antifolates in complex with human and Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase: correlations between enzyme selectivity and stereochemistry. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Apr;60(Pt 4):646-55. Epub 2004 Mar 23. 15039552
  21. Cody V, Luft JR, Pangborn W: Understanding the role of Leu22 variants in methotrexate resistance: comparison of wild-type and Leu22Arg variant mouse and human dihydrofolate reductase ternary crystal complexes with methotrexate and NADPH. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Feb;61(Pt 2):147-55. Epub 2005 Jan 19. 15681865
  22. Kovalevskaya NV, Smurnyy YD, Polshakov VI, Birdsall B, Bradbury AF, Frenkiel T, Feeney J: Solution structure of human dihydrofolate reductase in its complex with trimethoprim and NADPH. J Biomol NMR. 2005 Sep;33(1):69-72. 16222560
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  25. Volpato JP, Yachnin BJ, Blanchet J, Guerrero V, Poulin L, Fossati E, Berghuis AM, Pelletier JN: Multiple conformers in active site of human dihydrofolate reductase F31R/Q35E double mutant suggest structural basis for methotrexate resistance. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 24;284(30):20079-89. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.018010. Epub 2009 May 28. 19478082
  26. Gangjee A, Li W, Kisliuk RL, Cody V, Pace J, Piraino J, Makin J: Design, synthesis, and X-ray crystal structure of classical and nonclassical 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted-6-ethylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines as dual thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors and as potential antitumor agents. J Med Chem. 2009 Aug 13;52(15):4892-902. doi: 10.1021/jm900490a. 19719239
  27. Cario H, Smith DE, Blom H, Blau N, Bode H, Holzmann K, Pannicke U, Hopfner KP, Rump EM, Ayric Z, Kohne E, Debatin KM, Smulders Y, Schwarz K: Dihydrofolate reductase deficiency due to a homozygous DHFR mutation causes megaloblastic anemia and cerebral folate deficiency leading to severe neurologic disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Feb 11;88(2):226-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.01.007. 21310277