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NameTransforming growth factor beta-1
  • TGF-beta-1
  • TGFB
Gene NameTGFB1
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021834|Transforming growth factor beta-1
Number of residues390
Molecular Weight44340.685
Theoretical pI8.63
GO Classification
  • enzyme binding
  • glycoprotein binding
  • cytokine activity
  • type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
  • type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
  • antigen binding
  • type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
  • positive regulation of fibroblast migration
  • negative regulation of myoblast differentiation
  • negative regulation of cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding
  • ossification involved in bone remodeling
  • response to estradiol
  • negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane
  • digestive tract development
  • positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration
  • platelet activation
  • positive regulation of interleukin-17 production
  • protein kinase B signaling
  • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
  • chondrocyte differentiation
  • salivary gland morphogenesis
  • MAPK cascade
  • negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development
  • transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  • negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
  • negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA
  • regulation of cell migration
  • mitotic cell cycle checkpoint
  • response to laminar fluid shear stress
  • negative regulation of cell growth
  • SMAD protein import into nucleus
  • negative regulation of cell proliferation
  • positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly
  • positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production
  • ureteric bud development
  • positive regulation of SMAD protein import into nucleus
  • germ cell migration
  • negative regulation of ossification
  • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling
  • positive regulation of histone acetylation
  • macrophage derived foam cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes
  • positive regulation of gene expression
  • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity
  • SMAD protein signal transduction
  • regulation of apoptotic process
  • tolerance induction to self antigen
  • female pregnancy
  • organ regeneration
  • lymph node development
  • blood coagulation
  • extracellular matrix assembly
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
  • positive regulation of NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity
  • pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of superoxide anion generation
  • mammary gland branching involved in thelarche
  • epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway
  • regulation of DNA binding
  • myelination
  • response to progesterone
  • positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation
  • positive regulation of vascular permeability
  • protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of bone mineralization
  • positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of DNA replication
  • positive regulation of apoptotic process
  • mononuclear cell proliferation
  • cellular calcium ion homeostasis
  • modulation by virus of host morphology or physiology
  • cell-cell junction organization
  • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle
  • response to hypoxia
  • regulation of branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis
  • negative regulation of gene expression
  • negative regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly
  • common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of odontogenesis
  • ATP biosynthetic process
  • response to vitamin D
  • protein export from nucleus
  • response to drug
  • endoderm development
  • regulation of cartilage development
  • aging
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation
  • protein import into nucleus, translocation
  • hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation
  • receptor catabolic process
  • platelet degranulation
  • regulation of interleukin-23 production
  • regulation of protein import into nucleus
  • cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus
  • connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing
  • regulation of binding
  • regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization
  • negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion
  • positive regulation of MAP kinase activity
  • positive regulation of protein secretion
  • T cell homeostasis
  • viral life cycle
  • negative regulation of fat cell differentiation
  • regulation of striated muscle tissue development
  • Notch signaling pathway
  • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway
  • response to cholesterol
  • cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus
  • negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration
  • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus
  • negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation
  • regulatory T cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation
  • negative regulation of interleukin-17 production
  • extracellular matrix organization
  • adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains
  • lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
  • negative regulation of cell cycle
  • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of histone deacetylation
  • lens fiber cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process
  • regulation of blood vessel remodeling
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis
  • face morphogenesis
  • branch elongation involved in mammary gland duct branching
  • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
  • active induction of host immune response by virus
  • inflammatory response
  • cell growth
  • positive regulation of exit from mitosis
  • response to wounding
  • regulation of sodium ion transport
  • negative regulation of protein phosphorylation
  • cell development
  • positive regulation of cell migration
  • defense response to fungus, incompatible interaction
  • inner ear development
  • cellular response to organic cyclic compound
  • oligodendrocyte development
  • cell cycle arrest
  • positive regulation of cell cycle arrest
  • positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process
  • response to glucose
  • hyaluronan catabolic process
  • frontal suture morphogenesis
  • positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  • evasion or tolerance of host defenses by virus
  • positive regulation of chemotaxis
  • regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • response to radiation
  • positive regulation of protein complex assembly
  • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
  • phosphate-containing compound metabolic process
  • negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
  • negative regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process
  • positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity
  • SMAD protein complex assembly
  • positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis
  • cell surface
  • axon
  • neuronal cell body
  • cytoplasm
  • extracellular region
  • nucleus
  • platelet alpha granule lumen
  • blood microparticle
  • Golgi lumen
  • plasma membrane
  • extracellular space
  • proteinaceous extracellular matrix
General FunctionType iii transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific FunctionMultifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID1212989
UniProtKB IDP01137
UniProtKB Entry NameTGFB1_HUMAN
Cellular LocationSecreted
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021835|Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1)
GenBank Gene IDX05839
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDTGFB1
Chromosome Location19
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