Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
NameTransforming growth factor beta-1
Synonyms
  • TGF-beta-1
  • TGFB
Gene NameTGFB1
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021834|Transforming growth factor beta-1
MPPSGLRLLLLLLPLLWLLVLTPGRPAAGLSTCKTIDMELVKRKRIEAIRGQILSKLRLA
SPPSQGEVPPGPLPEAVLALYNSTRDRVAGESAEPEPEPEADYYAKEVTRVLMVETHNEI
YDKFKQSTHSIYMFFNTSELREAVPEPVLLSRAELRLLRLKLKVEQHVELYQKYSNNSWR
YLSNRLLAPSDSPEWLSFDVTGVVRQWLSRGGEIEGFRLSAHCSCDSRDNTLQVDINGFT
TGRRGDLATIHGMNRPFLLLMATPLERAQHLQSSRHRRALDTNYCFSSTEKNCCVRQLYI
DFRKDLGWKWIHEPKGYHANFCLGPCPYIWSLDTQYSKVLALYNQHNPGASAAPCCVPQA
LEPLPIVYYVGRKPKVEQLSNMIVRSCKCS
Number of residues390
Molecular Weight44340.685
Theoretical pI8.63
GO Classification
Functions
  • antigen binding
  • glycoprotein binding
  • cytokine activity
  • enzyme binding
  • type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
  • type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
  • type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Processes
  • defense response to fungus, incompatible interaction
  • protein export from nucleus
  • transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • endoderm development
  • epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation
  • ATP biosynthetic process
  • negative regulation of cell proliferation
  • regulation of interleukin-23 production
  • negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA
  • regulation of blood vessel remodeling
  • mitotic cell cycle checkpoint
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis
  • cell development
  • response to vitamin D
  • cell growth
  • response to wounding
  • evasion or tolerance of host defenses by virus
  • hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production
  • receptor catabolic process
  • negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
  • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation
  • negative regulation of protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation
  • regulation of protein import into nucleus
  • positive regulation of SMAD protein import into nucleus
  • regulation of sodium ion transport
  • germ cell migration
  • frontal suture morphogenesis
  • protein import into nucleus, translocation
  • cell cycle arrest
  • positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process
  • positive regulation of MAP kinase activity
  • negative regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process
  • T cell homeostasis
  • positive regulation of gene expression
  • negative regulation of fat cell differentiation
  • ureteric bud development
  • regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization
  • hyaluronan catabolic process
  • blood coagulation
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
  • regulation of striated muscle tissue development
  • SMAD protein signal transduction
  • response to glucose
  • tolerance induction to self antigen
  • negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production
  • positive regulation of protein secretion
  • response to radiation
  • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
  • negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane
  • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus
  • pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol
  • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity
  • cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus
  • phosphate-containing compound metabolic process
  • protein phosphorylation
  • regulatory T cell differentiation
  • mammary gland branching involved in thelarche
  • regulation of DNA binding
  • ossification involved in bone remodeling
  • negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration
  • negative regulation of cell differentiation
  • negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development
  • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of bone mineralization
  • positive regulation of histone deacetylation
  • positive regulation of superoxide anion generation
  • extracellular matrix organization
  • positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding
  • response to hypoxia
  • negative regulation of DNA replication
  • mononuclear cell proliferation
  • lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
  • salivary gland morphogenesis
  • negative regulation of cell cycle
  • platelet activation
  • protein kinase B signaling
  • face morphogenesis
  • positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly
  • positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • lens fiber cell differentiation
  • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
  • positive regulation of odontogenesis
  • chondrocyte differentiation
  • response to drug
  • common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
  • SMAD protein import into nucleus
  • active induction of host immune response by virus
  • regulation of cell migration
  • response to laminar fluid shear stress
  • positive regulation of cell migration
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes
  • oligodendrocyte development
  • negative regulation of gene expression
  • positive regulation of exit from mitosis
  • negative regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly
  • negative regulation of cell growth
  • negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation
  • platelet degranulation
  • negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • positive regulation of histone acetylation
  • inner ear development
  • macrophage derived foam cell differentiation
  • cellular response to organic cyclic compound
  • negative regulation of ossification
  • positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  • positive regulation of NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity
  • regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • aging
  • positive regulation of cell cycle arrest
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling
  • negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion
  • viral life cycle
  • regulation of binding
  • lymph node development
  • positive regulation of chemotaxis
  • extracellular matrix assembly
  • regulation of apoptotic process
  • female pregnancy
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
  • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis
  • cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus
  • positive regulation of protein complex assembly
  • connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing
  • organ regeneration
  • response to cholesterol
  • adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains
  • positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation
  • positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity
  • positive regulation of vascular permeability
  • SMAD protein complex assembly
  • epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway
  • myelination
  • response to estradiol
  • regulation of branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis
  • positive regulation of fibroblast migration
  • Notch signaling pathway
  • negative regulation of myoblast differentiation
  • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway
  • response to progesterone
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation
  • branch elongation involved in mammary gland duct branching
  • cell-cell junction organization
  • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle
  • digestive tract development
  • positive regulation of apoptotic process
  • cellular calcium ion homeostasis
  • MAPK cascade
  • regulation of cartilage development
  • positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration
  • positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation
  • positive regulation of interleukin-17 production
  • negative regulation of interleukin-17 production
  • modulation by virus of host morphology or physiology
  • inflammatory response
  • positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process
Components
  • cytoplasm
  • extracellular region
  • proteinaceous extracellular matrix
  • cell surface
  • nucleus
  • axon
  • platelet alpha granule lumen
  • blood microparticle
  • plasma membrane
  • Golgi lumen
  • extracellular space
  • neuronal cell body
General FunctionType iii transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific FunctionMultifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID1212989
UniProtKB IDP01137
UniProtKB Entry NameTGFB1_HUMAN
Cellular LocationSecreted
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021835|Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1)
ATGCCGCCCTCCGGGCTGCGGCTGCTGCCGCTGCTGCTACCGCTGCTGTGGCTACTGGTG
CTGACGCCTGGCCGGCCGGCCGCGGGACTATCCACCTGCAAGACTATCGACATGGAGCTG
GTGAAGCGGAAGCGCATCGAGGCCATCCGCGGCCAGATCCTGTCCAAGCTGCGGCTCGCC
AGCCCCCCGAGCCAGGGGGAGGTGCCGCCCGGCCCGCTGCCCGAGGCCGTGCTCGCCCTG
TACAACAGCACCCGCGACCGGGTGGCCGGGGAGAGTGCAGAACCGGAGCCCGAGCCTGAG
GCCGACTACTACGCCAAGGAGGTCACCCGCGTGCTAATGGTGGAAACCCACAACGAAATC
TATGACAAGTTCAAGCAGAGTACACACAGCATATATATGTTCTTCAACACATCAGAGCTC
CGAGAAGCGGTACCTGAACCCGTGTTGCTCTCCCGGGCAGAGCTGCGTCTGCTGAGGCTC
AAGTTAAAAGTGGAGCAGCACGTGGAGCTGTACCAGAAATACAGCAACAATTCCTGGCGA
TACCTCAGCAACCGGCTGCTGGCACCCAGCGACTCGCCAGAGTGGTTATCTTTTGATGTC
ACCGGAGTTGTGCGGCAGTGGTTGAGCCGTGGAGGGGAAATTGAGGGCTTTCGCCTTAGC
GCCCACTGCTCCTGTGACAGCAGGGATAACACACTGCAAGTGGACATCAACGGGTTCACT
ACCGGCCGCCGAGGTGACCTGGCCACCATTCATGGCATGAACCGGCCTTTCCTGCTTCTC
ATGGCCACCCCGCTGGAGAGGGCCCAGCATCTGCAAAGCTCCCGGCACCGCCGAGCCCTG
GACACCAACTATTGCTTCAGCTCCACGGAGAAGAACTGCTGCGTGCGGCAGCTGTACATT
GACTTCCGCAAGGACCTCGGCTGGAAGTGGATCCACGAGCCCAAGGGCTACCATGCCAAC
TTCTGCCTCGGGCCCTGCCCCTACATTTGGAGCCTGGACACGCAGTACAGCAAGGTCCTG
GCCCTGTACAACCAGCATAACCCGGGCGCCTCGGCGGCGCCGTGCTGCGTGCCGCAGGCG
CTGGAGCCGCTGCCCATCGTGTACTACGTGGGCCGCAAGCCCAAGGTGGAGCAGCTGTCC
AACATGATCGTGCGCTCCTGCAAGTGCAGCTGA
GenBank Gene IDX05839
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDTGFB1
HGNC IDHGNC:11766
Chromosome Location19
Locus19q13.2|19q13.1
References
  1. Derynck R, Rhee L, Chen EY, Van Tilburg A: Intron-exon structure of the human transforming growth factor-beta precursor gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Apr 10;15(7):3188-9. 3470709
  2. Derynck R, Jarrett JA, Chen EY, Eaton DH, Bell JR, Assoian RK, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Goeddel DV: Human transforming growth factor-beta complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells. Nature. 1985 Aug 22-28;316(6030):701-5. 3861940
  3. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. 14702039
  4. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. 15489334
  5. Bourdrel L, Lin CH, Lauren SL, Elmore RH, Sugarman BJ, Hu S, Westcott KR: Recombinant human transforming growth factor-beta 1: expression by Chinese hamster ovary cells, isolation, and characterization. Protein Expr Purif. 1993 Apr;4(2):130-40. 8471846
  6. Massague J, Like B: Cellular receptors for type beta transforming growth factor. Ligand binding and affinity labeling in human and rodent cell lines. J Biol Chem. 1985 Mar 10;260(5):2636-45. 2982829
  7. Miyazono K, Hellman U, Wernstedt C, Heldin CH: Latent high molecular weight complex of transforming growth factor beta 1. Purification from human platelets and structural characterization. J Biol Chem. 1988 May 5;263(13):6407-15. 3162913
  8. Munger JS, Harpel JG, Gleizes PE, Mazzieri R, Nunes I, Rifkin DB: Latent transforming growth factor-beta: structural features and mechanisms of activation. Kidney Int. 1997 May;51(5):1376-82. 9150447
  9. Okamoto O, Fujiwara S, Abe M, Sato Y: Dermatopontin interacts with transforming growth factor beta and enhances its biological activity. Biochem J. 1999 Feb 1;337 ( Pt 3):537-41. 9895299
  10. Shur I, Lokiec F, Bleiberg I, Benayahu D: Differential gene expression of cultured human osteoblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2001;83(4):547-53. 11746498
  11. Liu T, Qian WJ, Gritsenko MA, Camp DG 2nd, Monroe ME, Moore RJ, Smith RD: Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;4(6):2070-80. 16335952
  12. Finnson KW, Tam BY, Liu K, Marcoux A, Lepage P, Roy S, Bizet AA, Philip A: Identification of CD109 as part of the TGF-beta receptor system in human keratinocytes. FASEB J. 2006 Jul;20(9):1525-7. Epub 2006 Jun 5. 16754747
  13. Lewandrowski U, Moebius J, Walter U, Sickmann A: Elucidation of N-glycosylation sites on human platelet proteins: a glycoproteomic approach. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006 Feb;5(2):226-33. Epub 2005 Oct 31. 16263699
  14. Nakajima M, Kizawa H, Saitoh M, Kou I, Miyazono K, Ikegawa S: Mechanisms for asporin function and regulation in articular cartilage. J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 2;282(44):32185-92. Epub 2007 Sep 7. 17827158
  15. Burkard TR, Planyavsky M, Kaupe I, Breitwieser FP, Burckstummer T, Bennett KL, Superti-Furga G, Colinge J: Initial characterization of the human central proteome. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jan 26;5:17. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-17. 21269460
  16. Vaca Jacome AS, Rabilloud T, Schaeffer-Reiss C, Rompais M, Ayoub D, Lane L, Bairoch A, Van Dorsselaer A, Carapito C: N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome. Proteomics. 2015 Jul;15(14):2519-24. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201400617. Epub 2015 Jun 8. 25944712
  17. Archer SJ, Bax A, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Ogawa Y, Piez KA, Weatherbee JA, Tsang ML, Lucas R, Zheng BL, et al.: Transforming growth factor beta 1: NMR signal assignments of the recombinant protein expressed and isotopically enriched using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biochemistry. 1993 Feb 2;32(4):1152-63. 8424942
  18. Archer SJ, Bax A, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Ogawa Y, Piez KA, Weatherbee JA, Tsang ML, Lucas R, Zheng BL, et al.: Transforming growth factor beta 1: secondary structure as determined by heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1993 Feb 2;32(4):1164-71. 8424943
  19. Hinck AP, Archer SJ, Qian SW, Roberts AB, Sporn MB, Weatherbee JA, Tsang ML, Lucas R, Zhang BL, Wenker J, Torchia DA: Transforming growth factor beta 1: three-dimensional structure in solution and comparison with the X-ray structure of transforming growth factor beta 2. Biochemistry. 1996 Jul 2;35(26):8517-34. 8679613
  20. Yamada Y, Miyauchi A, Goto J, Takagi Y, Okuizumi H, Kanematsu M, Hase M, Takai H, Harada A, Ikeda K: Association of a polymorphism of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Japanese women. J Bone Miner Res. 1998 Oct;13(10):1569-76. 9783545
  21. Kinoshita A, Saito T, Tomita H, Makita Y, Yoshida K, Ghadami M, Yamada K, Kondo S, Ikegawa S, Nishimura G, Fukushima Y, Nakagomi T, Saito H, Sugimoto T, Kamegaya M, Hisa K, Murray JC, Taniguchi N, Niikawa N, Yoshiura K: Domain-specific mutations in TGFB1 result in Camurati-Engelmann disease. Nat Genet. 2000 Sep;26(1):19-20. 10973241
  22. Janssens K, Gershoni-Baruch R, Guanabens N, Migone N, Ralston S, Bonduelle M, Lissens W, Van Maldergem L, Vanhoenacker F, Verbruggen L, Van Hul W: Mutations in the gene encoding the latency-associated peptide of TGF-beta 1 cause Camurati-Engelmann disease. Nat Genet. 2000 Nov;26(3):273-5. 11062463
  23. Watanabe Y, Kinoshita A, Yamada T, Ohta T, Kishino T, Matsumoto N, Ishikawa M, Niikawa N, Yoshiura K: A catalog of 106 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 other types of variations in genes for transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and its signaling pathway. J Hum Genet. 2002;47(9):478-83. 12202987
  24. Janssens K, ten Dijke P, Ralston SH, Bergmann C, Van Hul W: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 mutations in Camurati-Engelmann disease lead to increased signaling by altering either activation or secretion of the mutant protein. J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 28;278(9):7718-24. Epub 2002 Dec 18. 12493741
  25. McGowan NW, MacPherson H, Janssens K, Van Hul W, Frith JC, Fraser WD, Ralston SH, Helfrich MH: A mutation affecting the latency-associated peptide of TGFbeta1 in Camurati-Engelmann disease enhances osteoclast formation in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jul;88(7):3321-6. 12843182
  26. Kinoshita A, Fukumaki Y, Shirahama S, Miyahara A, Nishimura G, Haga N, Namba A, Ueda H, Hayashi H, Ikegawa S, Seidel J, Niikawa N, Yoshiura K: TGFB1 mutations in four new families with Camurati-Engelmann disease: confirmation of independently arising LAP-domain-specific mutations. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 May 15;127A(1):104-7. 15103729