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NameTransforming growth factor beta-1
  • TGF-beta-1
  • TGFB
Gene NameTGFB1
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021834|Transforming growth factor beta-1
Number of residues390
Molecular Weight44340.685
Theoretical pI8.63
GO Classification
  • enzyme binding
  • antigen binding
  • glycoprotein binding
  • type II transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
  • type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
  • type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
  • cytokine activity
  • response to progesterone
  • regulation of protein import into nucleus
  • positive regulation of SMAD protein import into nucleus
  • germ cell migration
  • negative regulation of ossification
  • positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  • digestive tract development
  • frontal suture morphogenesis
  • T cell homeostasis
  • negative regulation of interleukin-17 production
  • negative regulation of fat cell differentiation
  • viral life cycle
  • positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation
  • negative regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process
  • modulation by virus of host morphology or physiology
  • regulation of striated muscle tissue development
  • SMAD protein signal transduction
  • tolerance induction to self antigen
  • regulation of apoptotic process
  • female pregnancy
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
  • transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • epithelial to mesenchymal transition
  • negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production
  • positive regulation of protein import into nucleus
  • negative regulation of phagocytosis
  • negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol
  • regulation of blood vessel remodeling
  • negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane
  • myelination
  • response to vitamin D
  • regulatory T cell differentiation
  • mammary gland branching involved in thelarche
  • regulation of DNA binding
  • epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway
  • response to estradiol
  • positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production
  • negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
  • ossification involved in bone remodeling
  • regulation of sodium ion transport
  • negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development
  • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation
  • negative regulation of protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of histone deacetylation
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation
  • cellular calcium ion homeostasis
  • protein import into nucleus, translocation
  • negative regulation of DNA replication
  • mononuclear cell proliferation
  • positive regulation of apoptotic process
  • MAPK cascade
  • positive regulation of gene expression
  • ureteric bud development
  • salivary gland morphogenesis
  • response to glucose
  • positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly
  • hyaluronan catabolic process
  • lens fiber cell differentiation
  • inflammatory response
  • positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process
  • ATP biosynthetic process
  • positive regulation of protein secretion
  • common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of odontogenesis
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of cell proliferation
  • pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity
  • SMAD protein import into nucleus
  • positive regulation of isotype switching to IgA isotypes
  • oligodendrocyte development
  • phosphate-containing compound metabolic process
  • positive regulation of exit from mitosis
  • cell growth
  • response to wounding
  • negative regulation of T cell proliferation
  • negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration
  • negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation
  • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of bone mineralization
  • positive regulation of histone acetylation
  • positive regulation of superoxide anion generation
  • macrophage derived foam cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity
  • regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway
  • positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding
  • positive regulation of cell cycle arrest
  • cell cycle arrest
  • positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process
  • regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization
  • positive regulation of MAP kinase activity
  • lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway
  • negative regulation of cell cycle
  • regulation of binding
  • negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion
  • extracellular matrix assembly
  • blood coagulation
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
  • positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation
  • lymph node development
  • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
  • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis
  • chondrocyte differentiation
  • positive regulation of protein complex assembly
  • response to radiation
  • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
  • cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus
  • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
  • active induction of host immune response by virus
  • response to cholesterol
  • positive regulation of vascular permeability
  • protein phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of gene expression
  • adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains
  • positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation
  • negative regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly
  • negative regulation of cell growth
  • regulation of branching involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis
  • positive regulation of fibroblast migration
  • negative regulation of myoblast differentiation
  • negative regulation of cell differentiation
  • extracellular matrix organization
  • inner ear development
  • cellular response to organic cyclic compound
  • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle
  • response to hypoxia
  • aging
  • branch elongation involved in mammary gland duct branching
  • cell-cell junction organization
  • positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation
  • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling
  • regulation of cartilage development
  • positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration
  • positive regulation of interleukin-17 production
  • platelet activation
  • protein kinase B signaling
  • face morphogenesis
  • positive regulation of chemotaxis
  • connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing
  • endoderm development
  • response to drug
  • cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus
  • defense response to fungus, incompatible interaction
  • protein export from nucleus
  • organ regeneration
  • regulation of interleukin-23 production
  • negative regulation of gene silencing by miRNA
  • mitotic cell cycle checkpoint
  • regulation of cell migration
  • response to laminar fluid shear stress
  • positive regulation of cell migration
  • positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity
  • SMAD protein complex assembly
  • cell development
  • hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation
  • extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway
  • receptor catabolic process
  • platelet degranulation
  • Notch signaling pathway
  • evasion or tolerance of host defenses by virus
  • neuronal cell body
  • blood microparticle
  • plasma membrane
  • Golgi lumen
  • extracellular space
  • proteinaceous extracellular matrix
  • cytoplasm
  • axon
  • extracellular region
  • cell surface
  • nucleus
  • platelet alpha granule lumen
General FunctionType iii transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific FunctionMultifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID1212989
UniProtKB IDP01137
UniProtKB Entry NameTGFB1_HUMAN
Cellular LocationSecreted
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021835|Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1)
GenBank Gene IDX05839
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDTGFB1
Chromosome Location19
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