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NameSperm protamine P1
  • Cysteine-rich protamine
Gene NamePRM1
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0013453|Sperm protamine P1
Number of residues51
Molecular Weight6822.9
Theoretical pINot Available
GO Classification
  • DNA binding
  • DNA packaging
  • cell differentiation
  • multicellular organismal development
  • spermatogenesis
  • chromosome condensation
  • nucleoplasm
  • nucleosome
General FunctionDna binding
Specific FunctionProtamines substitute for histones in the chromatin of sperm during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis. They compact sperm DNA into a highly condensed, stable and inactive complex.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein IDNot Available
UniProtKB IDP04553
UniProtKB Entry NameHSP1_HUMAN
Cellular LocationNucleus
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0013454|Sperm protamine P1 (PRM1)
GenBank Gene IDNot Available
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDNot Available
Chromosome Location16
LocusNot Available
  1. Domenjoud L, Nussbaum G, Adham IM, Greeske G, Engel W: Genomic sequences of human protamines whose genes, PRM1 and PRM2, are clustered. Genomics. 1990 Sep;8(1):127-33. 2081589
  2. Krawetz SA, Herfort MH, Hamerton JL, Pon RT, Dixon GH: Chromosomal localization and structure of the human P1 protamine gene. Genomics. 1989 Oct;5(3):639-45. 2613245
  3. Lee CH, Hoyer-Fender S, Engel W: The nucleotide sequence of a human protamine 1 cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Sep 25;15(18):7639. 3658707
  4. Nelson JE, Krawetz SA: Characterization of a human locus in transition. J Biol Chem. 1994 Dec 9;269(49):31067-73. 7983046
  5. Queralt R, de Fabregues-Boixar O, Adroer R, Gene M, Gomez-Catalan J, Huguet E, Oliva R: Direct sequencing of the human protamine P1 gene and application in forensic medicine. J Forensic Sci. 1993 Nov;38(6):1491-501. 8263493
  6. Wyckoff GJ, Wang W, Wu CI: Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man. Nature. 2000 Jan 20;403(6767):304-9. 10659848
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  8. McKay DJ, Renaux BS, Dixon GH: The amino acid sequence of human sperm protamine P1. Biosci Rep. 1985 May;5(5):383-91. 4027356
  9. Ammer H, Henschen A, Lee CH: Isolation and amino-acid sequence analysis of human sperm protamines P1 and P2. Occurrence of two forms of protamine P2. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1986 Jun;367(6):515-22. 3527226
  10. Papoutsopoulou S, Nikolakaki E, Chalepakis G, Kruft V, Chevaillier P, Giannakouros T: SR protein-specific kinase 1 is highly expressed in testis and phosphorylates protamine 1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999 Jul 15;27(14):2972-80. 10390541