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NameAromatase
Synonyms
  • 1.14.14.14
  • ARO1
  • CYAR
  • CYP19
  • CYPXIX
  • Cytochrome P-450AROM
  • Cytochrome P450 19A1
  • Estrogen synthase
Gene NameCYP19A1
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0004098|Aromatase
MVLEMLNPIHYNITSIVPEAMPAATMPVLLLTGLFLLVWNYEGTSSIPGPGYCMGIGPLI
SHGRFLWMGIGSACNYYNRVYGEFMRVWISGEETLIISKSSSMFHIMKHNHYSSRFGSKL
GLQCIGMHEKGIIFNNNPELWKTTRPFFMKALSGPGLVRMVTVCAESLKTHLDRLEEVTN
ESGYVDVLTLLRRVMLDTSNTLFLRIPLDESAIVVKIQGYFDAWQALLIKPDIFFKISWL
YKKYEKSVKDLKDAIEVLIAEKRRRISTEEKLEECMDFATELILAEKRGDLTRENVNQCI
LEMLIAAPDTMSVSLFFMLFLIAKHPNVEEAIIKEIQTVIGERDIKIDDIQKLKVMENFI
YESMRYQPVVDLVMRKALEDDVIDGYPVKKGTNIILNIGRMHRLEFFPKPNEFTLENFAK
NVPYRYFQPFGFGPRGCAGKYIAMVMMKAILVTLLRRFHVKTLQGQCVESIQKIHDLSLH
PDETKNMLEMIFTPRNSDRCLEH
Number of residues503
Molecular Weight57882.48
Theoretical pI7.56
GO Classification
Functions
  • oxygen binding
  • oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
  • electron carrier activity
  • aromatase activity
  • iron ion binding
  • heme binding
Processes
  • negative regulation of chronic inflammatory response
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • steroid biosynthetic process
  • steroid metabolic process
  • xenobiotic metabolic process
  • estrogen biosynthetic process
  • prostate gland growth
  • sterol metabolic process
  • androgen metabolic process
  • negative regulation of macrophage chemotaxis
Components
  • membrane
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • endoplasmic reticulum membrane
General FunctionOxygen binding
Specific FunctionCatalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID179002
UniProtKB IDP11511
UniProtKB Entry NameCP19A_HUMAN
Cellular LocationMembrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016675|Aromatase (CYP19A1)
ATGGTTTTGGAAATGCTGAACCCGATACATTATAACATCACCAGCATCGTGCCTGAAGCC
ATGCCTGCTGCCACCATGCCAGTCCTGCTCCTCACTGGCCTTTTTCTCTTGGTGTGGAAT
TATGAGGGCACATCCTCAATACCAGGTCCTGGCTACTGCATGGGAATTGGACCCCTCATC
TCCCACGGCAGATTCCTGTGGATGGGGATCGGCAGTGCCTGCAACTACTACAACCGGGTA
TATGGAGAATTCATGCGAGTCTGGATCTCTGGAGAGGAAACACTCATTATCAGCAAGTCC
TCAAGTATGTTCCACATAATGAAGCACAATCATTACAGCTCTCGATTCGGCAGCAAACTT
GGGCTGCAGTGCATCGGTATGCATGAGAAAGGCATCATATTTAACAACAATCCAGAGCTC
TGGAAAACAACTCGACCCTTCTTTATGAAAGCTCTGTCAGGCCCCGGCCTTGTTCGTATG
GTCACAGTCTGTGCTGAATCCCTCAAAACACATCTGGACAGGTTGGAGGAGGTGACCAAT
GAATCGGGCTATGTGGACGTGTTGACCCTTCTGCGTCGTGTCATGCTGGACACCTCTAAC
ACGCTCTTCTTGAGGATCCCTTTGGACGAAAGTGCTATCGTGGTTAAAATCCAAGGTTAT
TTTGATGCATGGCAAGCTCTCCTCATCAAACCAGACATCTTCTTTAAGATTTCTTGGCTA
TACAAAAAGTATGAGAAGTCTGTCAAGGATTTGAAAGATGCCATAGAAGTTCTGATAGCA
GAAAAAAGACGCAGGATTTCCACAGAAGAGAAACTGGAAGAATGTATGGACTTTGCCACT
GAGTTGATTTTAGCAGAGAAACGTGGTGACCTGACAAGAGAGAATGTGAACCAGTGCATA
TTGGAAATGCTGATCGCAGCTCCTGACACCATGTCTGTCTCTTTGTTCTTCATGCTATTT
CTCATTGCAAAGCACCCTAATGTTGAAGAGGCAATAATAAAGGAAATCCAGACTGTTATT
GGTGAGAGAGACATAAAGATTGATGATATACAAAAATTAAAAGTGATGGAAAACTTCATT
TATGAGAGCATGCGGTACCAGCCTGTCGTGGACTTGGTCATGCGCAAAGCCTTAGAAGAT
GATGTAATCGATGGCTACCCAGTGAAAAAGGGGACAAACATTATCCTGAATATTGGAAGG
ATGCACAGACTCGAGTTTTTCCCCAAACCCAATGAATTTACTCTTGAAAATTTTGCAAAG
AATGTTCCTTATAGGTACTTTCAGCCATTTGGCTTTGGGCCCCGTGGCTGTGCAGGAAAG
TACATCGCCATGGTGATGATGAAAGCCATCCTCGTTACACTTCTGAGACGATTCCACGTG
AAGACATTGCAAGGACAGTGTGTTGAGAGCATACAGAAGATACACGACTTGTCCTTGCAC
CCAGATGAGACTAAAAACATGCTGGAAATGATCTTTACCCCAAGAAACTCAGACAGGTGT
CTGGAACACTAG
GenBank Gene IDM22246
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDCYP19A1
HGNC IDHGNC:2594
Chromosome Location15
Locus15q21.1
References
  1. Harada N: Cloning of a complete cDNA encoding human aromatase: immunochemical identification and sequence analysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Oct 31;156(2):725-32. 2973313
  2. Chen SA, Besman MJ, Sparkes RS, Zollman S, Klisak I, Mohandas T, Hall PF, Shively JE: Human aromatase: cDNA cloning, Southern blot analysis, and assignment of the gene to chromosome 15. DNA. 1988 Jan-Feb;7(1):27-38. 3390233
  3. Corbin CJ, Graham-Lorence S, McPhaul M, Mason JI, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER: Isolation of a full-length cDNA insert encoding human aromatase system cytochrome P-450 and its expression in nonsteroidogenic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(23):8948-52. 2848247
  4. Toda K, Terashima M, Mitsuuchi Y, Yamasaki Y, Yokoyama Y, Nojima S, Ushiro H, Maeda T, Yamamoto Y, Sagara Y, et al.: Alternative usage of different poly(A) addition signals for two major species of mRNA encoding human aromatase P-450. FEBS Lett. 1989 Apr 24;247(2):371-6. 2541021
  5. Means GD, Mahendroo MS, Corbin CJ, Mathis JM, Powell FE, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER: Structural analysis of the gene encoding human aromatase cytochrome P-450, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1989 Nov 15;264(32):19385-91. 2808431
  6. Pompon D, Liu RY, Besman MJ, Wang PL, Shively JE, Chen S: Expression of human placental aromatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Endocrinol. 1989 Sep;3(9):1477-87. 2691883
  7. Harada N, Ogawa H, Shozu M, Yamada K, Suhara K, Nishida E, Takagi Y: Biochemical and molecular genetic analyses on placental aromatase (P-450AROM) deficiency. J Biol Chem. 1992 Mar 5;267(7):4781-5. 1371509
  8. Zody MC, Garber M, Sharpe T, Young SK, Rowen L, O'Neill K, Whittaker CA, Kamal M, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Kodira CD, Madan A, Qin S, Yang X, Abbasi N, Abouelleil A, Arachchi HM, Baradarani L, Birditt B, Bloom S, Bloom T, Borowsky ML, Burke J, Butler J, Cook A, DeArellano K, DeCaprio D, Dorris L 3rd, Dors M, Eichler EE, Engels R, Fahey J, Fleetwood P, Friedman C, Gearin G, Hall JL, Hensley G, Johnson E, Jones C, Kamat A, Kaur A, Locke DP, Madan A, Munson G, Jaffe DB, Lui A, Macdonald P, Mauceli E, Naylor JW, Nesbitt R, Nicol R, O'Leary SB, Ratcliffe A, Rounsley S, She X, Sneddon KM, Stewart S, Sougnez C, Stone SM, Topham K, Vincent D, Wang S, Zimmer AR, Birren BW, Hood L, Lander ES, Nusbaum C: Analysis of the DNA sequence and duplication history of human chromosome 15. Nature. 2006 Mar 30;440(7084):671-5. 16572171
  9. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. 15489334
  10. Evans CT, Ledesma DB, Schulz TZ, Simpson ER, Mendelson CR: Isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA specific for human aromatase-system cytochrome P-450 mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Sep;83(17):6387-91. 3018730
  11. Simpson ER, Evans CT, Corbin CJ, Powell FE, Ledesma DB, Mendelson CR: Sequencing of cDNA inserts encoding aromatase cytochrome P-450 (P-450AROM). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1987 Aug;52(3):267-72. 3653507
  12. Mahendroo MS, Means GD, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER: Tissue-specific expression of human P-450AROM. The promoter responsible for expression in adipose tissue is different from that utilized in placenta. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 15;266(17):11276-81. 2040633
  13. Mahendroo MS, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER: Tissue-specific and hormonally controlled alternative promoters regulate aromatase cytochrome P450 gene expression in human adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 1993 Sep 15;268(26):19463-70. 7690033
  14. Chen S, Shively JE, Nakajin S, Shinoda M, Hall PF: Amino terminal sequence analysis of human placenta aromatase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Mar 28;135(3):713-9. 3964273
  15. Honda S, Harada N, Takagi Y: Novel exon 1 of the aromatase gene specific for aromatase transcripts in human brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Feb 15;198(3):1153-60. 8117272
  16. Ghosh D, Griswold J, Erman M, Pangborn W: Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase. Nature. 2009 Jan 8;457(7226):219-23. doi: 10.1038/nature07614. 19129847
  17. Ito Y, Fisher CR, Conte FA, Grumbach MM, Simpson ER: Molecular basis of aromatase deficiency in an adult female with sexual infantilism and polycystic ovaries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15;90(24):11673-7. 8265607
  18. Morishima A, Grumbach MM, Simpson ER, Fisher C, Qin K: Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Dec;80(12):3689-98. 8530621
  19. Carani C, Qin K, Simoni M, Faustini-Fustini M, Serpente S, Boyd J, Korach KS, Simpson ER: Effect of testosterone and estradiol in a man with aromatase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 10;337(2):91-5. 9211678
  20. Ley TJ, Mardis ER, Ding L, Fulton B, McLellan MD, Chen K, Dooling D, Dunford-Shore BH, McGrath S, Hickenbotham M, Cook L, Abbott R, Larson DE, Koboldt DC, Pohl C, Smith S, Hawkins A, Abbott S, Locke D, Hillier LW, Miner T, Fulton L, Magrini V, Wylie T, Glasscock J, Conyers J, Sander N, Shi X, Osborne JR, Minx P, Gordon D, Chinwalla A, Zhao Y, Ries RE, Payton JE, Westervelt P, Tomasson MH, Watson M, Baty J, Ivanovich J, Heath S, Shannon WD, Nagarajan R, Walter MJ, Link DC, Graubert TA, DiPersio JF, Wilson RK: DNA sequencing of a cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia genome. Nature. 2008 Nov 6;456(7218):66-72. doi: 10.1038/nature07485. 18987736
  21. Bouchoucha N, Samara-Boustani D, Pandey AV, Bony-Trifunovic H, Hofer G, Aigrain Y, Polak M, Fluck CE: Characterization of a novel CYP19A1 (aromatase) R192H mutation causing virilization of a 46,XX newborn, undervirilization of the 46,XY brother, but no virilization of the mother during pregnancies. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014 Jun 5;390(1-2):8-17. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2014.03.008. Epub 2014 Apr 4. 24705274