Tmic
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NameTyrosinase
Synonyms
  • 1.14.18.1
  • LB24-AB
  • Monophenol monooxygenase
  • SK29-AB
  • Tumor rejection antigen AB
Gene NameTYR
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0000503|Tyrosinase
MLLAVLYCLLWSFQTSAGHFPRACVSSKNLMEKECCPPWSGDRSPCGQLSGRGSCQNILL
SNAPLGPQFPFTGVDDRESWPSVFYNRTCQCSGNFMGFNCGNCKFGFWGPNCTERRLLVR
RNIFDLSAPEKDKFFAYLTLAKHTISSDYVIPIGTYGQMKNGSTPMFNDINIYDLFVWMH
YYVSMDALLGGSEIWRDIDFAHEAPAFLPWHRLFLLRWEQEIQKLTGDENFTIPYWDWRD
AEKCDICTDEYMGGQHPTNPNLLSPASFFSSWQIVCSRLEEYNSHQSLCNGTPEGPLRRN
PGNHDKSRTPRLPSSADVEFCLSLTQYESGSMDKAANFSFRNTLEGFASPLTGIADASQS
SMHNALHIYMNGTMSQVQGSANDPIFLLHHAFVDSIFEQWLRRHRPLQEVYPEANAPIGH
NRESYMVPFIPLYRNGDFFISSKDLGYDYSYLQDSDPDSFQDYIKSYLEQASRIWSWLLG
AAMVGAVLTALLAGLVSLLCRHKRKQLPEEKQPLLMEKEDYHSLYQSHL
Number of residues529
Molecular Weight60392.69
Theoretical pI6.05
GO Classification
Functions
  • protein heterodimerization activity
  • monooxygenase activity
  • protein homodimerization activity
  • monophenol monooxygenase activity
  • copper ion binding
Processes
  • eye pigment biosynthetic process
  • visual perception
  • melanin biosynthetic process
  • cell proliferation
  • response to UV
  • response to vitamin D
  • cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
  • thymus development
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • melanin biosynthetic process from tyrosine
  • response to cAMP
Components
  • nucleus
  • lysosome
  • melanosome
  • integral component of membrane
  • Golgi-associated vesicle
  • cytosol
  • melanosome membrane
  • cytoplasm
  • perinuclear region of cytoplasm
General FunctionProtein homodimerization activity
Specific FunctionThis is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions477-497
GenBank Protein ID340037
UniProtKB IDP14679
UniProtKB Entry NameTYRO_HUMAN
Cellular LocationMelanosome membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021257|Tyrosinase (TYR)
ATGCTCCTGGCTGTTTTGTACTGCCTGCTGTGGAGTTTCCAGACCTCCGCTGGCCATTTC
CCTAGAGCCTGTGTCTCCTCTAAGAACCTGATGGAGAAGGAATGCTGTCCACCGTGGAGC
GGGGACAGGAGTCCCTGTGGCCAGCTTTCAGGCAGAGGTTCCTGTCAGAATATCCTTCTG
TCCAATGCACCACTTGGGCCTCAATTTCCCTTCACAGGGGTGGATGACCGGGAGTCGTGG
CCTTCCGTCTTTTATAATAGGACCTGCCAGTGCTCTGGCAACTTCATGGGATTCAACTGT
GGAAACTGCAAGTTTGGCTTTTGGGGACCAAACTGCACAGAGAGACGACTCTTGGTGAGA
AGAAACATCTTCGATTTGAGTGCCCCAGAGAAGGACAAATTTTTTGCCTACCTCACTTTA
GCAAAGCATACCATCAGCTCAGACTATGTCATCCCCATAGGGACCTATGGCCAAATGAAA
AATGGATCAACACCCATGTTTAACGACATCAATATTTATGACCTCTTTGTCTGGATGCAT
TATTATGTGTCAATGGATGCACTGCTTGGGGGATCTGAAATCTGGAGAGACATTGATTTT
GCCCATGAAGCACCAGCTTTTCTGCCTTGGCATAGACTCTTCTTGTTGCGGTGGGAACAA
GAAATCCAGAAGCTGACAGGAGATGAAAACTTCACTATTCCATATTGGGACTGGCGGGAT
GCAGAAAAGTGTGACATTTGCACAGATGAGTACATGGGAGGTCAGCACCCCACAAATCCT
AACTTACTCAGCCCAGCATCATTCTTCTCCTCTTGGCAGATTGTCTGTAGCCGATTGGAG
GAGTACAACAGCCATCAGTCTTTATGCAATGGAACGCCCGAGGGACCTTTACGGCGTAAT
CCTGGAAACCATGACAAATCCAGAACCCCAAGGCTCCCCTCTTCAGCTGATGTAGAATTT
TGCCTGAGTTTGACCCAATATGAATCTGGTTCCATGGATAAAGCTGCCAATTTCAGCTTT
AGAAATACACTGGAAGGATTTGCTAGTCCACTTACTGGGATAGCGGATGCCTCTCAAAGC
AGCATGCACAATGCCTTGCACATCTATATGAATGGAACAATGTCCCAGGTACAGGGATCT
GCCAACGATCCTATCTTCCTTCTTCACCATGCATTTGTTGACAGTATTTTTGAGCAGTGG
CTCCGAAGGCACCGTCCTCTTCAAGAAGTTTATCCAGAAGCCAATGCACCCATTGGACAT
AACCGGGAATCCTACATGGTTCCTTTTATACCACTGTACAGAAATGGTGATTTCTTTATT
TCATCCAAAGATCTGGGCTATGACTATAGCTATCTACAAGATTCAGACCCAGACTCTTTT
CAAGACTACATTAAGTCCTATTTGGAACAAGCGAGTCGGATCTGGTCATGGCTCCTTGGG
GCGGCGATGGTAGGGGCCGTCCTCACTGCCCTGCTGGCAGGGCTTGTGAGCTTGCTGTGT
CGTCACAAGAGAAAGCAGCTTCCTGAAGAAAAGCAGCCACTCCTCATGGAGAAAGAGGAT
TACCACAGCTTGTATCAGAGCCATTTATAA
GenBank Gene IDM27160
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDTYR
HGNC IDHGNC:12442
Chromosome Location11
Locus11q14-q21
References
  1. Giebel LB, Strunk KM, Spritz RA: Organization and nucleotide sequences of the human tyrosinase gene and a truncated tyrosinase-related segment. Genomics. 1991 Mar;9(3):435-45. 1903356
  2. Kwon BS, Haq AK, Pomerantz SH, Halaban R: Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov;84(21):7473-7. 2823263
  3. Bouchard B, Fuller BB, Vijayasaradhi S, Houghton AN: Induction of pigmentation in mouse fibroblasts by expression of human tyrosinase cDNA. J Exp Med. 1989 Jun 1;169(6):2029-42. 2499655
  4. Chintamaneni CD, Halaban R, Kobayashi Y, Witkop CJ Jr, Kwon BS: A single base insertion in the putative transmembrane domain of the tyrosinase gene as a cause for tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jun 15;88(12):5272-6. 1711223
  5. Brichard V, Van Pel A, Wolfel T, Wolfel C, De Plaen E, Lethe B, Coulie P, Boon T: The tyrosinase gene codes for an antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. J Exp Med. 1993 Aug 1;178(2):489-95. 8340755
  6. Martinez-Arias R, Comas D, Andres A, Abello MT, Domingo-Roura X, Bertranpetit J: The tyrosinase gene in gorillas and the albinism of 'Snowflake'. Pigment Cell Res. 2000 Dec;13(6):467-70. 11153699
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  8. Kikuchi H, Miura H, Yamamoto H, Takeuchi T, Dei T, Watanabe M: Characteristic sequences in the upstream region of the human tyrosinase gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989 Dec 22;1009(3):283-6. 2480811
  9. Takeda A, Tomita Y, Okinaga S, Tagami H, Shibahara S: Functional analysis of the cDNA encoding human tyrosinase precursor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Aug 15;162(3):984-90. 2504160
  10. Murphy WJ, Eizirik E, Johnson WE, Zhang YP, Ryder OA, O'Brien SJ: Molecular phylogenetics and the origins of placental mammals. Nature. 2001 Feb 1;409(6820):614-8. 11214319
  11. Oetting WS, King RA: Molecular basis of type I (tyrosinase-related) oculocutaneous albinism: mutations and polymorphisms of the human tyrosinase gene. Hum Mutat. 1993;2(1):1-6. 8477259
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  15. Spritz RA, Strunk KM, Giebel LB, King RA: Detection of mutations in the tyrosinase gene in a patient with type IA oculocutaneous albinism. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jun 14;322(24):1724-8. 2342539
  16. Giebel LB, Strunk KM, King RA, Hanifin JM, Spritz RA: A frequent tyrosinase gene mutation in classic, tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 May;87(9):3255-8. 1970634
  17. Giebel LB, Tripathi RK, Strunk KM, Hanifin JM, Jackson CE, King RA, Spritz RA: Tyrosinase gene mutations associated with type IB ("yellow") oculocutaneous albinism. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Jun;48(6):1159-67. 1903591
  18. Tripathi RK, Strunk KM, Giebel LB, Weleber RG, Spritz RA: Tyrosinase gene mutations in type I (tyrosinase-deficient) oculocutaneous albinism define two clusters of missense substitutions. Am J Med Genet. 1992 Jul 15;43(5):865-71. 1642278
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  20. Giebel LB, Tripathi RK, King RA, Spritz RA: A tyrosinase gene missense mutation in temperature-sensitive type I oculocutaneous albinism. A human homologue to the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. J Clin Invest. 1991 Mar;87(3):1119-22. 1900309
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  34. Opitz S, Kasmann-Kellner B, Kaufmann M, Schwinger E, Zuhlke C: Detection of 53 novel DNA variations within the tyrosinase gene and accumulation of mutations in 17 patients with albinism. Hum Mutat. 2004 Jun;23(6):630-1. 15146472
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  36. Sulem P, Gudbjartsson DF, Stacey SN, Helgason A, Rafnar T, Magnusson KP, Manolescu A, Karason A, Palsson A, Thorleifsson G, Jakobsdottir M, Steinberg S, Palsson S, Jonasson F, Sigurgeirsson B, Thorisdottir K, Ragnarsson R, Benediktsdottir KR, Aben KK, Kiemeney LA, Olafsson JH, Gulcher J, Kong A, Thorsteinsdottir U, Stefansson K: Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans. Nat Genet. 2007 Dec;39(12):1443-52. Epub 2007 Oct 21. 17952075
  37. Chong JX, Ouwenga R, Anderson RL, Waggoner DJ, Ober C: A population-based study of autosomal-recessive disease-causing mutations in a founder population. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Oct 5;91(4):608-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.08.007. Epub 2012 Sep 13. 22981120
  38. Simeonov DR, Wang X, Wang C, Sergeev Y, Dolinska M, Bower M, Fischer R, Winer D, Dubrovsky G, Balog JZ, Huizing M, Hart R, Zein WM, Gahl WA, Brooks BP, Adams DR: DNA variations in oculocutaneous albinism: an updated mutation list and current outstanding issues in molecular diagnostics. Hum Mutat. 2013 Jun;34(6):827-35. doi: 10.1002/humu.22315. Epub 2013 Apr 30. 23504663
  39. Shah SA, Din SU, Raheem N, Daud S, Mubeen J, Nadeem A, Tayyab M, Baloch DM, Babar ME, Ahmad J: Identification of a novel mutation (p.Ile198Thr) in gene TYR in a Pakistani family with nonsyndromic oculocutaneous albinism. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2014 Jul;39(5):646-8. doi: 10.1111/ced.12382. 24934919