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NameGlutamine synthetase
Synonyms
  • 6.3.1.2
  • GLNS
  • Glutamate decarboxylase
  • Glutamate--ammonia ligase
  • GS
Gene NameGLUL
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0019251|Glutamine synthetase
MTTSASSHLNKGIKQVYMSLPQGEKVQAMYIWIDGTGEGLRCKTRTLDSEPKCVEELPEW
NFDGSSTLQSEGSNSDMYLVPAAMFRDPFRKDPNKLVLCEVFKYNRRPAETNLRHTCKRI
MDMVSNQHPWFGMEQEYTLMGTDGHPFGWPSNGFPGPQGPYYCGVGADRAYGRDIVEAHY
RACLYAGVKIAGTNAEVMPAQWEFQIGPCEGISMGDHLWVARFILHRVCEDFGVIATFDP
KPIPGNWNGAGCHTNFSTKAMREENGLKYIEEAIEKLSKRHQYHIRAYDPKGGLDNARRL
TGFHETSNINDFSAGVANRSASIRIPRTVGQEKKGYFEDRRPSANCDPFSVTEALIRTCL
LNETGDEPFQYKN
Number of residues373
Molecular Weight42064.15
Theoretical pI6.88
GO Classification
Functions
  • identical protein binding
  • ATP binding
  • manganese ion binding
  • magnesium ion binding
  • glutamate binding
  • glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
  • glutamate decarboxylase activity
Processes
  • neurotransmitter uptake
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • glutamine biosynthetic process
  • positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
  • synaptic transmission
  • protein homooligomerization
  • response to glucose
  • glutamate catabolic process
  • cell proliferation
  • positive regulation of insulin secretion
  • cellular response to starvation
  • cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
  • positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic
  • cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
Components
  • glial cell projection
  • cytosol
  • extracellular exosome
  • cytoplasm
  • myelin sheath
  • mitochondrion
  • protein complex
  • axon terminus
  • perikaryon
  • nucleus
  • rough endoplasmic reticulum
General FunctionManganese ion binding
Specific FunctionThis enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID31833
UniProtKB IDP15104
UniProtKB Entry NameGLNA_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0019252|Glutamine synthetase (GLUL)
ATGACCACCTCAGCAAGTTCCCACTTAAATAAAGGCATCAAGCAGGTGTACATGTCCCTG
CCTCAGGGTGAGAAAGTCCAGGCCATGTATATCTGGATCGATGGTACTGGAGAAGGACTG
CGCTGCAAGACCCGGACCCTGGACAGTGAGCCCAAGTGTGTGGAAGAGTTGCCTGAGTGG
AATTTCGATGGCTCTAGTACTTTACAGTCTGAGGGTTCCAACAGTGACATGTATCTCGTG
CCTGCTGCCATGTTTCGGGACCCCTTCCGTAAGGACCCTAACAAGCTGGTGTTATGTGAA
GTTTTCAAGTACAATCGAAGGCCTGCAGAGACCAATTTGAGGCACACCTGTAAACGGATA
ATGGACATGGTGAGCAACCAGCACCCCTGGTTTGGCATGGAGCAGGAGTATACCCTCATG
GGGACAGATGGGCACCCCTTTGGTTGGCCTTCCAACGGCTTCCCAGGGCCCCAGGGTCCA
TATTACTGTGGTGTGGGAGCAGACAGAGCCTATGGCAGGGACATCGTGGAGGCCCATTAC
CGGGCCTGCTTGTATGCTGGAGTCAAGATTGCGGGGACTAATGCCGAGGTCATGCCTGCC
CAGTGGGAATTTCAGATTGGACCTTGTGAAGGAATCAGCATGGGAGATCATCTCTGGGTG
GCCCGTTTCATCTTGCATCGTGTGTGTGAAGACTTTGGAGTGATAGCAACCTTTGATCCT
AAGCCCATTCCTGGGAACTGGAATGGTGCAGGCTGCCATACCAACTTCAGCACCAAGGCC
ATGCGGGAGGAGAATGGTCTGAAGTACATCGAGGAGGCCATTGAGAAACTAAGCAAGCGG
CACCAGTACCACATCCGTGCCTATGATCCCAAGGGAGGCCTGGACAATGCCCGACGTCTA
ACTGGATTCCATGAAACCTCCAACATCAACGACTTTTCTGCTGGTGTAGCCAATCGTAGC
GCCAGCATACGCATTCCCCGGACTGTTGGCCAGGAGAAGAAGGGTTACTTTGAAGATCGT
CGCCCCTCTGCCAACTGCGACCCCTTTTCGGTGACAGAAGCCCTCATCCGCACGTGTCTT
CTCAATGAAACCGGCGATGAGCCCTTCCAGTACAAAAATTAA
GenBank Gene IDY00387
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDGLUL
HGNC IDHGNC:4341
Chromosome Location1
Locus1q31
References
  1. Gibbs CS, Campbell KE, Wilson RH: Sequence of a human glutamine synthetase cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Aug 11;15(15):6293. 2888076
  2. Van den Hoff MJ, Geerts WJ, Das AT, Moorman AF, Lamers WH: cDNA sequence of the long mRNA for human glutamine synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Oct 8;1090(2):249-51. 1681907
  3. Christa L, Simon MT, Flinois JP, Gebhardt R, Brechot C, Lasserre C: Overexpression of glutamine synthetase in human primary liver cancer. Gastroenterology. 1994 May;106(5):1312-20. 7909780
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  7. Boksha IS, Schonfeld HJ, Langen H, Muller F, Tereshkina EB, Burbaeva GSh: Glutamine synthetase isolated from human brain: octameric structure and homology of partial primary structure with human liver glutamine synthetase. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2002 Sep;67(9):1012-20. 12387715
  8. Vermeulen T, Gorg B, Vogl T, Wolf M, Varga G, Toutain A, Paul R, Schliess F, Haussinger D, Haberle J: Glutamine synthetase is essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008 Oct 1;478(1):96-102. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2008.07.009. Epub 2008 Jul 17. 18662667
  9. Olkku A, Mahonen A: Wnt and steroid pathways control glutamate signalling by regulating glutamine synthetase activity in osteoblastic cells. Bone. 2008 Sep;43(3):483-93. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.04.016. Epub 2008 May 7. 18555765
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