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NameHLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain
Synonyms
  • DP(W3)
  • DP(W4)
  • HLA-DP1A
  • HLA-SB alpha chain
  • HLASB
  • MHC class II DP3-alpha
  • MHC class II DPA1
Gene NameHLA-DPA1
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0008837|HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain
MRPEDRMFHIRAVILRALSLAFLLSLRGAGAIKADHVSTYAAFVQTHRPTGEFMFEFDED
EMFYVDLDKKETVWHLEEFGQAFSFEAQGGLANIAILNNNLNTLIQRSNHTQATNDPPEV
TVFPKEPVELGQPNTLICHIDKFFPPVLNVTWLCNGELVTEGVAESLFLPRTDYSFHKFH
YLTFVPSAEDFYDCRVEHWGLDQPLLKHWEAQEPIQMPETTETVLCALGLVLGLVGIIVG
TVLIIKSLRSGHDPRAQGTL
Number of residues260
Molecular Weight29380.345
Theoretical pINot Available
GO Classification
Functions
  • MHC class II receptor activity
  • peptide antigen binding
Processes
  • immune response
  • cellular response to interferon-gamma
  • positive regulation of T cell activation
  • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II
  • cytokine-mediated signaling pathway
  • positive regulation of T cell proliferation
  • positive regulation of interferon-gamma production
  • T cell costimulation
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway
  • interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway
Components
  • transport vesicle membrane
  • plasma membrane
  • ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane
  • cell surface
  • integral component of plasma membrane
  • Golgi membrane
  • clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane
  • integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  • MHC class II protein complex
  • endocytic vesicle membrane
  • trans-Golgi network membrane
  • lysosomal membrane
  • endosome membrane
General FunctionPeptide antigen binding
Specific FunctionBinds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions223-245
GenBank Protein IDNot Available
UniProtKB IDP20036
UniProtKB Entry NameDPA1_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCell membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0013445|HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain (HLA-DPA1)
ATGCGCCCTGAAGACAGAATGTTCCATATCAGAGCTGTGATCTTGAGAGCCCTCTCCTTG
GCTTTCCTGCTGAGTCTCCGAGGAGCTGGGGCCATCAAGGCGGACCATGTGTCAACTTAT
GCCGCGTTTGTACAGACGCATAGACCAACAGGGGAGTTTATGTTTGAATTTGATGAAGAT
GAGATGTTCTATGTGGATCTGGACAAGAAGGAGACCGTCTGGCATCTGGAGGAGTTTGGC
CAAGCCTTTTCCTTTGAGGCTCAGGGCGGGCTGGCTAACATTGCTATATTGAACAACAAC
TTGAATACCTTGATCCAGCGTTCCAACCACACTCAGGCCACCAACGATCCCCCTGAGGTG
ACCGTGTTTCCCAAGGAGCCTGTGGAGCTGGGCCAGCCCAACACCCTCATCTGCCACATT
GACAAGTTCTTCCCACCAGTGCTCAACGTCACGTGGCTGTGCAACGGGGAGCTGGTCACT
GAGGGTGTCGCTGAGAGCCTCTTCCTGCCCAGAACAGATTACAGCTTCCACAAGTTCCAT
TACCTGACCTTTGTGCCCTCAGCAGAGGACTTCTATGACTGCAGGGTGGAGCACTGGGGC
TTGGACCAGCCGCTCCTCAAGCACTGGGAGGCCCAAGAGCCAATCCAGATGCCTGAGACA
ACGGAGACTGTGCTCTGTGCCCTGGGCCTGGTGCTGGGCCTAGTCGGCATCATCGTGGGC
ACCGTCCTCATCATAAAGTCTCTGCGTTCTGGCCATGACCCCCGGGCCCAGGGGACCCTG
TGA
GenBank Gene IDNot Available
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDNot Available
HGNC IDHGNC:4938
Chromosome Location6
LocusNot Available
References
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