You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
NameHistone H2A type 1-D
Synonyms
  • H2AFG
  • Histone H2A.3
  • Histone H2A/g
Gene NameHIST1H2AD
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0017626|Histone H2A type 1-D
MSGRGKQGGKARAKAKTRSSRAGLQFPVGRVHRLLRKGNYSERVGAGAPVYLAAVLEYLT
AEILELAGNAARDNKKTRIIPRHLQLAIRNDEELNKLLGKVTIAQGGVLPNIQAVLLPKK
TESHHKAKGK
Number of residues130
Molecular Weight14107.375
Theoretical pINot Available
GO Classification
Functions
  • DNA binding
Processes
  • chromatin silencing
  • chromatin organization
Components
  • nucleus
  • extracellular exosome
  • nuclear chromatin
  • nucleosome
General FunctionDna binding
Specific FunctionCore component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein IDNot Available
UniProtKB IDP20671
UniProtKB Entry NameH2A1D_HUMAN
Cellular LocationNucleus
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0017627|Histone H2A type 1-D (HIST1H2AD)
ATGTCCGGACGCGGCAAGCAAGGCGGAAAGGCCCGAGCTAAGGCTAAGACCCGCTCTTCG
CGGGCCGGACTCCAGTTCCCTGTGGGCCGCGTACACCGCTTGCTCCGCAAGGGCAACTAC
TCCGAGCGAGTCGGGGCCGGCGCGCCAGTGTATCTGGCGGCGGTGTTGGAGTACCTGACC
GCCGAGATCCTGGAGCTGGCGGGCAACGCCGCCCGCGACAACAAGAAGACCCGCATCATC
CCCCGACACCTGCAGCTGGCCATCCGCAACGACGAGGAGCTAAACAAGTTGCTGGGTAAA
GTCACAATTGCTCAGGGCGGTGTTCTGCCCAACATCCAGGCTGTACTGCTCCCCAAGAAG
ACTGAGAGTCACCACAAGGCCAAGGGCAAGTAA
GenBank Gene IDNot Available
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDNot Available
HGNC IDHGNC:4729
Chromosome Location6
LocusNot Available
References
  1. Kosciessa U, Doenecke D: Nucleotide sequences of mouse histone genes H2A and H3.1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Nov 11;17(21):8861. 2587222
  2. Albig W, Kioschis P, Poustka A, Meergans K, Doenecke D: Human histone gene organization: nonregular arrangement within a large cluster. Genomics. 1997 Mar 1;40(2):314-22. 9119399
  3. Marzluff WF, Gongidi P, Woods KR, Jin J, Maltais LJ: The human and mouse replication-dependent histone genes. Genomics. 2002 Nov;80(5):487-98. 12408966
  4. Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J, Beck S: The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. Nature. 2003 Oct 23;425(6960):805-11. 14574404
  5. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. 15489334
  6. Aihara H, Nakagawa T, Yasui K, Ohta T, Hirose S, Dhomae N, Takio K, Kaneko M, Takeshima Y, Muramatsu M, Ito T: Nucleosomal histone kinase-1 phosphorylates H2A Thr 119 during mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 2004 Apr 15;18(8):877-88. Epub 2004 Apr 12. 15078818
  7. Zhang Y, Griffin K, Mondal N, Parvin JD: Phosphorylation of histone H2A inhibits transcription on chromatin templates. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 21;279(21):21866-72. Epub 2004 Mar 9. 15010469
  8. Wang H, Wang L, Erdjument-Bromage H, Vidal M, Tempst P, Jones RS, Zhang Y: Role of histone H2A ubiquitination in Polycomb silencing. Nature. 2004 Oct 14;431(7010):873-8. Epub 2004 Sep 22. 15386022
  9. Hagiwara T, Hidaka Y, Yamada M: Deimination of histone H2A and H4 at arginine 3 in HL-60 granulocytes. Biochemistry. 2005 Apr 19;44(15):5827-34. 15823041
  10. Cao R, Tsukada Y, Zhang Y: Role of Bmi-1 and Ring1A in H2A ubiquitylation and Hox gene silencing. Mol Cell. 2005 Dec 22;20(6):845-54. 16359901
  11. Bergink S, Salomons FA, Hoogstraten D, Groothuis TA, de Waard H, Wu J, Yuan L, Citterio E, Houtsmuller AB, Neefjes J, Hoeijmakers JH, Vermeulen W, Dantuma NP: DNA damage triggers nucleotide excision repair-dependent monoubiquitylation of histone H2A. Genes Dev. 2006 May 15;20(10):1343-52. 16702407
  12. Boyne MT 2nd, Pesavento JJ, Mizzen CA, Kelleher NL: Precise characterization of human histones in the H2A gene family by top down mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2006 Feb;5(2):248-53. 16457589
  13. Mailand N, Bekker-Jensen S, Faustrup H, Melander F, Bartek J, Lukas C, Lukas J: RNF8 ubiquitylates histones at DNA double-strand breaks and promotes assembly of repair proteins. Cell. 2007 Nov 30;131(5):887-900. Epub 2007 Nov 20. 18001824
  14. Huen MS, Grant R, Manke I, Minn K, Yu X, Yaffe MB, Chen J: RNF8 transduces the DNA-damage signal via histone ubiquitylation and checkpoint protein assembly. Cell. 2007 Nov 30;131(5):901-14. Epub 2007 Nov 20. 18001825
  15. Stewart GS, Panier S, Townsend K, Al-Hakim AK, Kolas NK, Miller ES, Nakada S, Ylanko J, Olivarius S, Mendez M, Oldreive C, Wildenhain J, Tagliaferro A, Pelletier L, Taubenheim N, Durandy A, Byrd PJ, Stankovic T, Taylor AM, Durocher D: The RIDDLE syndrome protein mediates a ubiquitin-dependent signaling cascade at sites of DNA damage. Cell. 2009 Feb 6;136(3):420-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.12.042. 19203578
  16. Doil C, Mailand N, Bekker-Jensen S, Menard P, Larsen DH, Pepperkok R, Ellenberg J, Panier S, Durocher D, Bartek J, Lukas J, Lukas C: RNF168 binds and amplifies ubiquitin conjugates on damaged chromosomes to allow accumulation of repair proteins. Cell. 2009 Feb 6;136(3):435-46. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.12.041. 19203579
  17. Tan M, Luo H, Lee S, Jin F, Yang JS, Montellier E, Buchou T, Cheng Z, Rousseaux S, Rajagopal N, Lu Z, Ye Z, Zhu Q, Wysocka J, Ye Y, Khochbin S, Ren B, Zhao Y: Identification of 67 histone marks and histone lysine crotonylation as a new type of histone modification. Cell. 2011 Sep 16;146(6):1016-28. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.08.008. 21925322
  18. Mattiroli F, Vissers JH, van Dijk WJ, Ikpa P, Citterio E, Vermeulen W, Marteijn JA, Sixma TK: RNF168 ubiquitinates K13-15 on H2A/H2AX to drive DNA damage signaling. Cell. 2012 Sep 14;150(6):1182-95. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.08.005. 22980979
  19. Gatti M, Pinato S, Maspero E, Soffientini P, Polo S, Penengo L: A novel ubiquitin mark at the N-terminal tail of histone H2As targeted by RNF168 ubiquitin ligase. Cell Cycle. 2012 Jul 1;11(13):2538-44. doi: 10.4161/cc.20919. Epub 2012 Jul 1. 22713238
  20. Kim K, Kim JM, Kim JS, Choi J, Lee YS, Neamati N, Song JS, Heo K, An W: VprBP has intrinsic kinase activity targeting histone H2A and represses gene transcription. Mol Cell. 2013 Nov 7;52(3):459-67. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2013.09.017. Epub 2013 Oct 17. 24140421
  21. Tessarz P, Santos-Rosa H, Robson SC, Sylvestersen KB, Nelson CJ, Nielsen ML, Kouzarides T: Glutamine methylation in histone H2A is an RNA-polymerase-I-dedicated modification. Nature. 2014 Jan 23;505(7484):564-8. doi: 10.1038/nature12819. Epub 2013 Dec 18. 24352239
  22. Bhatnagar S, Gazin C, Chamberlain L, Ou J, Zhu X, Tushir JS, Virbasius CM, Lin L, Zhu LJ, Wajapeyee N, Green MR: TRIM37 is a new histone H2A ubiquitin ligase and breast cancer oncoprotein. Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):116-20. doi: 10.1038/nature13955. Epub 2014 Nov 24. 25470042