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NameSerine--pyruvate aminotransferase
Synonyms
  • 2.6.1.51
  • AGT
  • AGT1
  • Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase
  • SPAT
  • SPT
Gene NameAGXT
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010080|Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase
MASHKLLVTPPKALLKPLSIPNQLLLGPGPSNLPPRIMAAGGLQMIGSMSKDMYQIMDEI
KEGIQYVFQTRNPLTLVISGSGHCALEAALVNVLEPGDSFLVGANGIWGQRAVDIGERIG
ARVHPMTKDPGGHYTLQEVEEGLAQHKPVLLFLTHGESSTGVLQPLDGFGELCHRYKCLL
LVDSVASLGGTPLYMDRQGIDILYSGSQKALNAPPGTSLISFSDKAKKKMYSRKTKPFSF
YLDIKWLANFWGCDDQPRMYHHTIPVISLYSLRESLALIAEQGLENSWRQHREAAAYLHG
RLQALGLQLFVKDPALRLPTVTTVAVPAGYDWRDIVSYVIDHFDIEIMGGLGPSTGKVLR
IGLLGCNATRENVDRVTEALRAALQHCPKKKL
Number of residues392
Molecular Weight43009.535
Theoretical pI8.55
GO Classification
Functions
  • pyridoxal phosphate binding
  • amino acid binding
  • transaminase activity
  • receptor binding
  • protein homodimerization activity
  • alanine-glyoxylate transaminase activity
  • protein self-association
  • serine-pyruvate transaminase activity
Processes
  • glycine biosynthetic process, by transamination of glyoxylate
  • glyoxylate catabolic process
  • L-alanine catabolic process
  • L-cysteine catabolic process
  • Notch signaling pathway
  • oxalic acid secretion
  • cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
  • proteasomal protein catabolic process
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • pyruvate biosynthetic process
  • glyoxylate metabolic process
  • response to cAMP
  • response to glucocorticoid
Components
  • mitochondrial matrix
  • peroxisome
  • peroxisomal matrix
General FunctionTransaminase activity
Specific FunctionNot Available
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID36582
UniProtKB IDP21549
UniProtKB Entry NameSPYA_HUMAN
Cellular LocationPeroxisome
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010081|Serine--pyruvate aminotransferase (AGXT)
ATGGCCTCTCACAAGCTGCTGGTGACCCCCCCCAAGGCCCTGCTCAAGCCCCTCTCCATC
CCCAACCAGCTCCTGCTGGGGCCTGGTCCTTCCAACCTGCCTCCTCGCATCATGGCAGCC
GGGGGGCTGCAGATGATCGGGTCCATGAGCAAGGATATGTACCAGATCATGGACGAGATC
AAGGAAGGCATCCAGTACGTGTTCCAGACCAGGAACCCACTCACACTGGTCATCTCTGGC
TCGGGACACTGTGCCCTGGAGGCCGCCCTGGTCAATGTGCTGGAGCCTGGGGACTCCTTC
CTGGTTGGGGCCAATGGCATTTGGGGGCAGCGAGCCGTGGACATCGGGGAGCGCATAGGA
GCCCGAGTGCACCCGATGACCAAGGACCCTGGAGGCCACTACACACTGCAGGAGGTGGAG
GAGGGCCTGGCCCAGCACAAGCCAGTGCTGCTGTTCTTAACCCACGGGGAGTCGTCCACC
GGCGTGCTGCAGCCCCTTGATGGCTTCGGGGAACTCTGCCACAGGTACAAGTGCCTGCTC
CTGGTGGATTCGGTGGCATCCCTGGGCGGGACCCCCCTTTACATGGACCGGCAAGGCATC
GACATCCTGTACTCGGGCTCCCAGAAGGCCCTGAACGCCCCTCCAGGGACCTCGCTCATC
TCCTTCAGTGACAAGGCCAAAAAGAAGATGTACTCCCGCAAGACGAAGCCCTTCTCCTTC
TACCTGGACATCAAGTGGCTGGCCAACTTCTGGGGCTGTGACGACCAGCCCAGGATGTAC
CATCACACAATCCCCGTCATCAGCCTGTACAGCCTGAGAGAGAGCCTGGCCCTCATTGCG
GAACAGGGCCTGGAGAACAGCTGGCGCCAGCACCGCGAGGCCGCGGCGTATCTGCATGGG
CGCCTGCAGGCACTGGGGCTGCAGCTCTTCGTGAAGGACCCGGCGCTCCGGCTTCCCACA
GTCACCACTGTGGCTGTACCCGCTGGCTATGACTGGAGAGACATCGTCAGCTACGTCATA
GACCACTTCGACATTGAGATCATGGGTGGCCTTGGGCCCTCCACGGGGAAGGTGCTGCGG
ATCGGCCTGCTGGGCTGCAATGCCACCCGCGAGAATGTGGACCGCGTGACGGAGGCCCTG
AGGGCGGCCCTGCAGCACTGCCCCAAGAAGAAGCTGTGA
GenBank Gene IDX56092
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDAGXT
HGNC IDHGNC:341
Chromosome Location2
Locus2q36-q37
References
  1. Nishiyama K, Berstein G, Oda T, Ichiyama A: Cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding human liver serine-pyruvate aminotransferase. Eur J Biochem. 1990 Nov 26;194(1):9-18. 2253628
  2. Purdue PE, Takada Y, Danpure CJ: Identification of mutations associated with peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting of alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase in primary hyperoxaluria type 1. J Cell Biol. 1990 Dec;111(6 Pt 1):2341-51. 1703535
  3. Takada Y, Kaneko N, Esumi H, Purdue PE, Danpure CJ: Human peroxisomal L-alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase. Evolutionary loss of a mitochondrial targeting signal by point mutation of the initiation codon. Biochem J. 1990 Jun 1;268(2):517-20. 2363689
  4. Purdue PE, Lumb MJ, Fox M, Griffo G, Hamon-Benais C, Povey S, Danpure CJ: Characterization and chromosomal mapping of a genomic clone encoding human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. Genomics. 1991 May;10(1):34-42. 2045108
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  8. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. 24275569
  9. Zhang X, Roe SM, Hou Y, Bartlam M, Rao Z, Pearl LH, Danpure CJ: Crystal structure of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and the relationship between genotype and enzymatic phenotype in primary hyperoxaluria type 1. J Mol Biol. 2003 Aug 15;331(3):643-52. 12899834
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  11. Purdue PE, Lumb MJ, Allsop J, Minatogawa Y, Danpure CJ: A glycine-to-glutamate substitution abolishes alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase catalytic activity in a subset of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Genomics. 1992 May;13(1):215-8. 1349575
  12. Minatogawa Y, Tone S, Allsop J, Purdue PE, Takada Y, Danpur CJ, Kido R: A serine-to-phenylalanine substitution leads to loss of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase catalytic activity and immunoreactivity in a patient with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 Nov;1(8):643-4. 1301173
  13. Danpure CJ, Purdue PE, Fryer P, Griffiths S, Allsop J, Lumb MJ, Guttridge KM, Jennings PR, Scheinman JI, Mauer SM, et al.: Enzymological and mutational analysis of a complex primary hyperoxaluria type 1 phenotype involving alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting and intraperoxisomal aggregation. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Aug;53(2):417-32. 8101040
  14. Danpure CJ: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. Biochimie. 1993;75(3-4):309-15. 8507692
  15. von Schnakenburg C, Rumsby G: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: a cluster of new mutations in exon 7 of the AGXT gene. J Med Genet. 1997 Jun;34(6):489-92. 9192270
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  18. Pirulli D, Puzzer D, Ferri L, Crovella S, Amoroso A, Ferrettini C, Marangella M, Mazzola G, Florian F: Molecular analysis of hyperoxaluria type 1 in Italian patients reveals eight new mutations in the alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase gene. Hum Genet. 1999 Jun;104(6):523-5. 10453743
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  20. Basmaison O, Rolland MO, Cochat P, Bozon D: Identification of 5 novel mutations in the AGXT gene. Hum Mutat. 2000 Jun;15(6):577. 10862087
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  22. Coulter-Mackie MB, Tung A, Henderson HE, Toone JR, Applegarth DA: The AGT gene in Africa: a distinctive minor allele haplotype, a polymorphism (V326I), and a novel PH1 mutation (A112D) in Black Africans. Mol Genet Metab. 2003 Jan;78(1):44-50. 12559847
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  27. Coulter-Mackie MB, Lian Q, Applegarth D, Toone J: The major allele of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase gene: nine novel mutations and polymorphisms associated with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Sep-Oct;86(1-2):172-8. Epub 2005 Jun 15. 15963748
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  29. Williams E, Rumsby G: Selected exonic sequencing of the AGXT gene provides a genetic diagnosis in 50% of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Clin Chem. 2007 Jul;53(7):1216-21. Epub 2007 May 10. 17495019
  30. Oppici E, Roncador A, Montioli R, Bianconi S, Cellini B: Gly161 mutations associated with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I induce the cytosolic aggregation and the intracellular degradation of the apo-form of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Dec;1832(12):2277-88. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.09.002. Epub 2013 Sep 17. 24055001
  31. Fargue S, Lewin J, Rumsby G, Danpure CJ: Four of the most common mutations in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 unmask the cryptic mitochondrial targeting sequence of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase encoded by the polymorphic minor allele. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jan 25;288(4):2475-84. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.432617. Epub 2012 Dec 10. 23229545
  32. Li GM, Xu H, Shen Q, Gong YN, Fang XY, Sun L, Liu HM, An Y: Mutational analysis of AGXT in two Chinese families with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. BMC Nephrol. 2014 Jun 17;15:92. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-15-92. 24934730
  33. Montioli R, Oppici E, Dindo M, Roncador A, Gotte G, Cellini B, Borri Voltattorni C: Misfolding caused by the pathogenic mutation G47R on the minor allele of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and chaperoning activity of pyridoxine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Oct;1854(10 Pt A):1280-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2015.07.002. Epub 2015 Jul 3. 26149463