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  • GIF
  • GIFB
  • Growth inhibitory factor
  • Metallothionein-III
  • MT-3
  • MT-III
Gene NameMT3
Amino acid sequence
Number of residues68
Molecular Weight6926.855
Theoretical pINot Available
GO Classification
  • copper ion binding
  • antioxidant activity
  • cadmium ion binding
  • protein kinase activator activity
  • drug binding
  • cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process
  • zinc ion binding
  • cellular response to cadmium ion
  • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to oxidative stress
  • negative regulation of apoptotic process
  • negative regulation of axon extension
  • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
  • regulation of protein glycosylation
  • negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process
  • cholesterol catabolic process
  • zinc II ion transport
  • response to hypoxia
  • zinc ion homeostasis
  • energy reserve metabolic process
  • cellular zinc ion homeostasis
  • astrocyte development
  • negative regulation of cell growth
  • cellular lipid catabolic process
  • protein kinase B signaling
  • negative regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process
  • activation of protein kinase B activity
  • histone modification
  • positive regulation of necrotic cell death
  • removal of superoxide radicals
  • protein import into nucleus, translocation
  • brain development
  • cellular response to nitric oxide
  • positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
  • ERK1 and ERK2 cascade
  • cellular response to hypoxia
  • cadmium ion homeostasis
  • cell proliferation
  • negative regulation of autophagy
  • positive regulation of cell death
  • cellular metal ion homeostasis
  • positive regulation of catalytic activity
  • cellular response to drug
  • negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity
  • protein stabilization
  • positive regulation of gene expression
  • negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide catabolic process
  • leptin-mediated signaling pathway
  • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process
  • negative regulation of necrotic cell death
  • cellular response to oxidative stress
  • positive regulation of lysosomal membrane permeability
  • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation
  • negative regulation of oxidoreductase activity
  • regulation of response to food
  • positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway
  • positive regulation of oxygen metabolic process
  • positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
  • cytoplasm
  • axon
  • rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • ribosome
  • postsynaptic density
  • microtubule
  • plasma membrane
  • inclusion body
  • extracellular space
  • astrocyte end-foot
  • synaptic vesicle
  • mitochondrial outer membrane
  • perinuclear region of cytoplasm
  • dendritic spine
  • intracellular
General FunctionZinc ion binding
Specific FunctionBinds heavy metals. Contains three zinc and three copper atoms per polypeptide chain and only a negligible amount of cadmium. Inhibits survival and neurite formation of cortical neurons in vitro.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein IDNot Available
UniProtKB IDP25713
UniProtKB Entry NameMT3_HUMAN
Cellular LocationNot Available
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0017835|Metallothionein-3 (MT3)
GenBank Gene IDNot Available
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDNot Available
Chromosome Location16
LocusNot Available
  1. Uchida Y, Takio K, Titani K, Ihara Y, Tomonaga M: The growth inhibitory factor that is deficient in the Alzheimer's disease brain is a 68 amino acid metallothionein-like protein. Neuron. 1991 Aug;7(2):337-47. 1873033
  2. Palmiter RD, Findley SD, Whitmore TE, Durnam DM: MT-III, a brain-specific member of the metallothionein gene family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jul 15;89(14):6333-7. 1631128
  3. Tsuji S, Kobayashi H, Uchida Y, Ihara Y, Miyatake T: Molecular cloning of human growth inhibitory factor cDNA and its down-regulation in Alzheimer's disease. EMBO J. 1992 Dec;11(13):4843-50. 1464312
  4. Naruse S, Igarashi S, Furuya T, Kobayashi H, Miyatake T, Tsuji S: Structures of the human and mouse growth inhibitory factor-encoding genes. Gene. 1994 Jul 8;144(2):283-7. 8039715
  5. Amoureux MC, Wurch T, Pauwels PJ: Modulation of metallothionein-III mRNA content and growth rate of rat C6-glial cells by transfection with human 5-HT1D receptor genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Sep 14;214(2):639-45. 7677777
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