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NameTranslocator protein
Synonyms
  • BZRP
  • MBR
  • Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor
  • PBR
  • Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor
  • PKBS
Gene NameTSPO
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0037065|Translocator protein
MAPPWVPAMGFTLAPSLGCFVGSRFVHGEGLRWYAGLQKPSWHPPHWVLGPVWGTLYSAM
GYGSYLVWKELGGFTEKAVVPLGLYTGQLALNWAWPPIFFGARQMGWALVDLLLVSGAAA
ATTVAWYQVSPLAARLLYPYLAWLAFTTTLNYCVWRDNHGWRGGRRLPE
Number of residues169
Molecular Weight18827.81
Theoretical pI9.33
GO Classification
Functions
  • benzodiazepine receptor activity
  • androgen binding
  • cholesterol binding
Processes
  • aging
  • cell proliferation
  • cellular response to zinc ion
  • peripheral nervous system axon regeneration
  • response to manganese ion
  • contact inhibition
  • heme biosynthetic process
  • positive regulation of necrotic cell death
  • response to vitamin B1
  • steroid biosynthetic process
  • negative regulation of glial cell proliferation
  • response to progesterone
  • regulation of cholesterol transport
  • behavioral response to pain
  • positive regulation of apoptotic process
  • protein targeting to mitochondrion
  • steroid metabolic process
  • apoptotic process
  • positive regulation of calcium ion transport
  • positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process
  • response to testosterone
  • glial cell migration
  • negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production
  • anion transport
  • positive regulation of mitochondrial depolarization
  • cellular response to lipopolysaccharide
  • chloride transport
  • positive regulation of glial cell proliferation
  • cellular hypotonic response
  • response to drug
  • regulation of steroid biosynthetic process
  • adrenal gland development
  • lipid transport
  • negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process
Components
  • mitochondrial outer membrane
  • integral component of membrane
  • extracellular exosome
  • nuclear membrane
  • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle
  • cytoplasm
  • mitochondrion
General FunctionCholesterol binding
Specific FunctionCan bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions6-26 47-67 80-100 106-126 135-155
GenBank Protein ID306883
UniProtKB IDP30536
UniProtKB Entry NameTSPOA_HUMAN
Cellular LocationMitochondrion membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0016193|Translocator protein (TSPO)
ATGGCCCCGCCCTGGGTGCCCGCCATGGGCTTCACGCTGGCGCCCAGCCTGGGGTGCTTC
GTGGGCTCCCGCTTTGTCCACGGCGAGGGTCTCCGCTGGTACGCCGGCCTGCAGAAGCCC
TCGTGGCACCCGCCCCACTGGGTGCTGGGCCCTGTCTGGGGCACGCTCTACTCAGCCATG
GGGTACGGCTCCTACCTGGTCTGGAAAGAGCTGGGAGGCTTCACAGAGAAGGCTGTGGTT
CCCCTGGGCCTCTACACTGGGCAGCTGGCCCTGAACTGGGCATGGCCCCCCATCTTCTTT
GGTGCCCGACAAATGGGCTGGGCCTTGGTGGATCTCCTGCTGGTCAGTGGGGCGGCGGCA
GCCACTACCGTGGCCTGGTACCAGGTGAGCCCGCTGGCCGCCCGCCTGCTCTACCCCTAC
CTGGCCTGGCTGGCCTTCACGACCACACTCAACTACTGCGTATGGCGGGACAACCATGGC
TGGCGTGGGGGACGGCGGCTGCCAGAGTGA
GenBank Gene IDM36035
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDTSPO
HGNC IDHGNC:1158
Chromosome Location22
Locus22q13.31
References
  1. Riond J, Mattei MG, Kaghad M, Dumont X, Guillemot JC, Le Fur G, Caput D, Ferrara P: Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a human peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Jan 30;195(2):305-11. 1847678
  2. Yakovlev AG, Ruffo M, Jurka J, Krueger KE: Comparison of repetitive elements in the third intron of human and rodent mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor-encoding genes. Gene. 1995 Apr 3;155(2):201-5. 7721091
  3. Costa B, Salvetti A, Rossi L, Spinetti F, Lena A, Chelli B, Rechichi M, Da Pozzo E, Gremigni V, Martini C: Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor: characterization in human T-lymphoma Jurkat cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;69(1):37-44. Epub 2005 Sep 27. 16189298
  4. Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, Cole CG, Goward ME, Aguado B, Mallya M, Mokrab Y, Huckle EJ, Beare DM, Dunham I: A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome. Genome Biol. 2004;5(10):R84. Epub 2004 Sep 30. 15461802
  5. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, O'Brien KP, et al.: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. Nature. 1999 Dec 2;402(6761):489-95. 10591208
  6. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. 15489334
  7. Galiegue S, Jbilo O, Combes T, Bribes E, Carayon P, Le Fur G, Casellas P: Cloning and characterization of PRAX-1. A new protein that specifically interacts with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 29;274(5):2938-52. 9915832
  8. Papadopoulos V, Baraldi M, Guilarte TR, Knudsen TB, Lacapere JJ, Lindemann P, Norenberg MD, Nutt D, Weizman A, Zhang MR, Gavish M: Translocator protein (18kDa): new nomenclature for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor based on its structure and molecular function. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Aug;27(8):402-9. Epub 2006 Jul 5. 16822554
  9. Tan JM, Chow VT: Cellular expression, localization and interactions of the product of the human MOST-1 gene associated with breast and prostate cancers. Int J Oncol. 2007 Jan;30(1):81-9. 17143515
  10. Batarseh A, Papadopoulos V: Regulation of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) expression in health and disease states. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010 Oct 7;327(1-2):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2010.06.013. Epub 2010 Jun 30. 20600583
  11. Burkard TR, Planyavsky M, Kaupe I, Breitwieser FP, Burckstummer T, Bennett KL, Superti-Furga G, Colinge J: Initial characterization of the human central proteome. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jan 26;5:17. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-17. 21269460
  12. Taylor JM, Allen AM, Graham A: Targeting mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) regulates macrophage cholesterol efflux and lipid phenotype. Clin Sci (Lond). 2014 Nov;127(10):603-13. doi: 10.1042/CS20140047. 24814875
  13. Vaca Jacome AS, Rabilloud T, Schaeffer-Reiss C, Rompais M, Ayoub D, Lane L, Bairoch A, Van Dorsselaer A, Carapito C: N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome. Proteomics. 2015 Jul;15(14):2519-24. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201400617. Epub 2015 Jun 8. 25944712
  14. Kurumaji A, Nomoto H, Yoshikawa T, Okubo Y, Toru M: An association study between two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese sample. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2000;107(4):491-500. 11215759
  15. Kurumaji A, Nomoto H, Yamada K, Yoshikawa T, Toru M: No association of two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and mood disorders in a Japanese sample. Am J Med Genet. 2001 Mar 8;105(2):172-5. 11304832
  16. Costa B, Pini S, Gabelloni P, Da Pozzo E, Abelli M, Lari L, Preve M, Lucacchini A, Cassano GB, Martini C: The spontaneous Ala147Thr amino acid substitution within the translocator protein influences pregnenolone production in lymphomonocytes of healthy individuals. Endocrinology. 2009 Dec;150(12):5438-45. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-0752. Epub 2009 Oct 21. 19846611