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NameProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
Synonyms
  • 1.14.99.1
  • COX-2
  • COX2
  • Cyclooxygenase-2
  • PGH synthase 2
  • PGHS-2
  • PHS II
  • Prostaglandin H2 synthase 2
  • Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Gene NamePTGS2
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021832|Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
MLARALLLCAVLALSHTANPCCSHPCQNRGVCMSVGFDQYKCDCTRTGFYGENCSTPEFL
TRIKLFLKPTPNTVHYILTHFKGFWNVVNNIPFLRNAIMSYVLTSRSHLIDSPPTYNADY
GYKSWEAFSNLSYYTRALPPVPDDCPTPLGVKGKKQLPDSNEIVEKLLLRRKFIPDPQGS
NMMFAFFAQHFTHQFFKTDHKRGPAFTNGLGHGVDLNHIYGETLARQRKLRLFKDGKMKY
QIIDGEMYPPTVKDTQAEMIYPPQVPEHLRFAVGQEVFGLVPGLMMYATIWLREHNRVCD
VLKQEHPEWGDEQLFQTSRLILIGETIKIVIEDYVQHLSGYHFKLKFDPELLFNKQFQYQ
NRIAAEFNTLYHWHPLLPDTFQIHDQKYNYQQFIYNNSILLEHGITQFVESFTRQIAGRV
AGGRNVPPAVQKVSQASIDQSRQMKYQSFNEYRKRFMLKPYESFEELTGEKEMSAELEAL
YGDIDAVELYPALLVEKPRPDAIFGETMVEVGAPFSLKGLMGNVICSPAYWKPSTFGGEV
GFQIINTASIQSLICNNVKGCPFTSFSVPDPELIKTVTINASSSRSGLDDINPTVLLKER
STEL
Number of residues604
Molecular Weight68995.625
Theoretical pI7.41
GO Classification
Functions
  • peroxidase activity
  • prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
  • lipid binding
  • metal ion binding
  • arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase activity
  • enzyme binding
  • heme binding
Processes
  • positive regulation of vasoconstriction
  • positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis
  • negative regulation of cell proliferation
  • negative regulation of calcium ion transport
  • positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation
  • response to fructose
  • positive regulation of smooth muscle contraction
  • response to vitamin D
  • cellular response to hypoxia
  • cellular response to UV
  • regulation of inflammatory response
  • decidualization
  • memory
  • negative regulation of smooth muscle contraction
  • NAD metabolic process
  • cyclooxygenase pathway
  • response to drug
  • positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production
  • vitamin metabolic process
  • negative regulation of cell cycle
  • arachidonic acid metabolic process
  • positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation
  • water-soluble vitamin metabolic process
  • response to oxidative stress
  • lipoxygenase pathway
  • maintenance of blood-brain barrier
  • ovulation
  • regulation of blood pressure
  • positive regulation of synaptic plasticity
  • response to glucocorticoid
  • prostaglandin metabolic process
  • inflammatory response
  • response to manganese ion
  • negative regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic
  • response to lipopolysaccharide
  • positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process
  • hair cycle
  • sensory perception of pain
  • positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic
  • bone mineralization
  • positive regulation of fibroblast growth factor production
  • cellular response to fluid shear stress
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • embryo implantation
  • positive regulation of platelet-derived growth factor production
  • cellular response to ATP
  • positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus
  • response to tumor necrosis factor
  • positive regulation of apoptotic process
  • response to lithium ion
  • angiogenesis
  • positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production
  • response to fatty acid
  • movement of cell or subcellular component
  • nicotinamide metabolic process
  • cellular response to mechanical stimulus
  • positive regulation of fever generation
  • learning
  • prostaglandin biosynthetic process
  • response to estradiol
  • brown fat cell differentiation
  • positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process
Components
  • protein complex
  • nucleus
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • neuron projection
  • endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  • caveola
  • endoplasmic reticulum lumen
  • cytoplasm
General FunctionProstaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific FunctionConverts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID291988
UniProtKB IDP35354
UniProtKB Entry NamePGH2_HUMAN
Cellular LocationMicrosome membrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0021833|Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (PTGS2)
ATGCTCGCCCGCGCCCTGCTGCTGTGCGCGGTCCTGGCGCTCAGCCATACAGCAAATCCT
TGCTGTTCCCACCCATGTCAAAACCGAGGTGTATGTATGAGTGTGGGATTTGACCAGTAT
AAGTGCGATTGTACCCGGACAGGATTCTATGGAGAAAACTGCTCAACACCGGAATTTTTG
ACAAGAATAAAATTATTTCTGAAACCCACTCCAAACACAGTGCACTACATACTTACCCAC
TTCAAGGGATTTTGGAACGTTGTGAATAACATTCCCTTCCTTCGAAATGCAATTATGAGT
TATGTGTTGACATCCAGATCACATTTGATTGACAGTCCACCAACTTACAATGCTGACTAT
GGCTACAAAAGCTGGGAAGCCTTCTCTAACCTCTCCTATTATACTAGAGCCCTTCCTCCT
GTGCCTGATGATTGCCCGACTCCCTTGGGTGTCAAAGGTAAAAAGCAGCTTCCTGATTCA
AATGAGATTGTGGAAAAATTGCTTCTAAGAAGAAAGTTCATCCCTGATCCCCAGGGCTCA
AACATGATGTTTGCATTCTTTGCCCAGCACTTCACGCATCAGTTTTTCAAGACAGATCAT
AAGCGAGGGCCAGCTTTCACCAACGGGCTGGGCCATGGGGTGGACTTAAATCATATTTAC
GGTGAAACTCTGGCTAGACAGCGTAAACTGCGCCTTTTCAAGGATGGAAAAATGAAATAT
CAGATAATTGATGGAGAGATGTATCCTCCCACAGTCAAAGATACTCAGGCAGAGATGATC
TACCCTCCTCAAGTCCCTGAGCATCTACGGTTTGCTGTGGGGCAGGAGGTCTTTGGTCTG
GTGCCTGGTCTGATGATGTATGCCACAATCTGGCTGCGGGAACACAACAGAGTATGCGAT
GTGCTTAAACAGGAGCATCCTGAATGGGGTGATGAGCAGTTGTTCCAGACAAGCAGGCTA
ATACTGATAGGAGAGACTATTAAGATTGTGATTGAAGATTATGTGCAACACTTGAGTGGC
TATCACTTCAAACTGAAATTTGACCCAGAACTACTTTTCAACAAACAATTCCAGTACCAA
AATCGTATTGCTGCTGAATTTAACACCCTCTATCACTGGCATCCCCTTCTGCCTGACACC
TTTCAAATTCATGACCAGAAATACAACTATCAACAGTTTATCTACAACAACTCTATATTG
CTGGAACATGGAATTACCCAGTTTGTTGAATCATTCACCAGGCAAATTGCTGGCAGGGTT
GCTGGTGGTAGGAATGTTCCACCCGCAGTACAGAAAGTATCACAGGCTTCCATTGACCAG
AGCAGGCAGATGAAATACCAGTCTTTTAATGAGTACCGCAAACGCTTTATGCTGAAGCCC
TATGAATCATTTGAAGAACTTACAGGAGAAAAGGAAATGTCTGCAGAGTTGGAAGCACTC
TATGGTGACATCGATGCTGTGGAGCTGTATCCTGCCCTTCTGGTAGAAAAGCCTCGGCCA
GATGCCATCTTTGGTGAAACCATGGTAGAAGTTGGAGCACCATTCTCCTTGAAAGGACTT
ATGGGTAATGTTATATGTTCTCCTGCCTACTGGAAGCCAAGCACTTTTGGTGGAGAAGTG
GGTTTTCAAATCATCAACACTGCCTCAATTCAGTCTCTCATCTGCAATAACGTGAAGGGC
TGTCCCTTTACTTCATTCAGTGTTCCAGATCCAGAGCTCATTAAAACAGTCACCATCAAT
GCAAGTTCTTCCCGCTCCGGACTAGATGATATCAATCCCACAGTACTACTAAAAGAACGT
TCGACTGAACTGTAG
GenBank Gene IDL15326
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDPTGS2
HGNC IDHGNC:9605
Chromosome Location1
Locus1q25.2-q25.3
References
  1. Jones DA, Carlton DP, McIntyre TM, Zimmerman GA, Prescott SM: Molecular cloning of human prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase type II and demonstration of expression in response to cytokines. J Biol Chem. 1993 Apr 25;268(12):9049-54. 8473346
  2. Hla T, Neilson K: Human cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Aug 15;89(16):7384-8. 1380156
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