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NameXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Synonyms
  • XDHA
Gene NameXDH
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0011593|Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
MTADKLVFFVNGRKVVEKNADPETTLLAYLRRKLGLSGTKLGCGEGGCGACTVMLSKYDR
LQNKIVHFSANACLAPICSLHHVAVTTVEGIGSTKTRLHPVQERIAKSHGSQCGFCTPGI
VMSMYTLLRNQPEPTMEEIENAFQGNLCRCTGYRPILQGFRTFARDGGCCGGDGNNPNCC
MNQKKDHSVSLSPSLFKPEEFTPLDPTQEPIFPPELLRLKDTPRKQLRFEGERVTWIQAS
TLKELLDLKAQHPDAKLVVGNTEIGIEMKFKNMLFPMIVCPAWIPELNSVEHGPDGISFG
AACPLSIVEKTLVDAVAKLPAQKTEVFRGVLEQLRWFAGKQVKSVASVGGNIITASPISD
LNPVFMASGAKLTLVSRGTRRTVQMDHTFFPGYRKTLLSPEEILLSIEIPYSREGEYFSA
FKQASRREDDIAKVTSGMRVLFKPGTTEVQELALCYGGMANRTISALKTTQRQLSKLWKE
ELLQDVCAGLAEELHLPPDAPGGMVDFRCTLTLSFFFKFYLTVLQKLGQENLEDKCGKLD
PTFASATLLFQKDPPADVQLFQEVPKGQSEEDMVGRPLPHLAADMQASGEAVYCDDIPRY
ENELSLRLVTSTRAHAKIKSIDTSEAKKVPGFVCFISADDVPGSNITGICNDETVFAKDK
VTCVGHIIGAVVADTPEHTQRAAQGVKITYEELPAIITIEDAIKNNSFYGPELKIEKGDL
KKGFSEADNVVSGEIYIGGQEHFYLETHCTIAVPKGEAGEMELFVSTQNTMKTQSFVAKM
LGVPANRIVVRVKRMGGGFGGKETRSTVVSTAVALAAYKTGRPVRCMLDRDEDMLITGGR
HPFLARYKVGFMKTGTVVALEVDHFSNVGNTQDLSQSIMERALFHMDNCYKIPNIRGTGR
LCKTNLPSNTAFRGFGGPQGMLIAECWMSEVAVTCGMPAEEVRRKNLYKEGDLTHFNQKL
EGFTLPRCWEECLASSQYHARKSEVDKFNKENCWKKRGLCIIPTKFGISFTVPFLNQAGA
LLHVYTDGSVLLTHGGTEMGQGLHTKMVQVASRALKIPTSKIYISETSTNTVPNTSPTAA
SVSADLNGQAVYAACQTILKRLEPYKKKNPSGSWEDWVTAAYMDTVSLSATGFYRTPNLG
YSFETNSGNPFHYFSYGVACSEVEIDCLTGDHKNLRTDIVMDVGSSLNPAIDIGQVEGAF
VQGLGLFTLEELHYSPEGSLHTRGPSTYKIPAFGSIPIEFRVSLLRDCPNKKAIYASKAV
GEPPLFLAASIFFAIKDAIRAARAQHTGNNVKELFRLDSPATPEKIRNACVDKFTTLCVT
GVPENCKPWSVRV
Number of residues1333
Molecular Weight146422.99
Theoretical pI7.7
GO Classification
Functions
  • flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
  • iron ion binding
  • oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors
  • oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors
  • 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding
  • electron carrier activity
  • molybdopterin cofactor binding
  • xanthine dehydrogenase activity
  • xanthine oxidase activity
  • protein homodimerization activity
Processes
  • negative regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway
  • positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process
  • negative regulation of vasculogenesis
  • nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process
  • positive regulation of p38MAPK cascade
  • purine nucleobase metabolic process
  • xanthine catabolic process
  • purine nucleotide catabolic process
  • negative regulation of gene expression
  • activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process
  • negative regulation of endothelial cell differentiation
  • negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation
  • negative regulation of protein phosphorylation
  • lactation
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling
Components
  • sarcoplasmic reticulum
  • extracellular space
  • peroxisome
  • cytosol
General FunctionXanthine oxidase activity
Specific FunctionKey enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID10336525
UniProtKB IDP47989
UniProtKB Entry NameXDH_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0011594|Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH)
ATGACAGCAGACAAATTGGTTTTCTTTGTGAATGGCAGAAAGGTGGTGGAGAAAAATGCA
GATCCAGAGACAACCCTTTTGGCCTACCTGAGAAGAAAGTTGGGGCTGAGTGGAACCAAG
CTCGGCTGTGGAGAGGGGGGCTGCGGGGCTTGCACAGTGATGCTCTCCAAGTATGATCGT
CTGCAGAACAAGATCGTCCACTTTTCTGCCAATGCCTGCCTGGCCCCCATCTGCTCCTTG
CACCATGTTGCAGTGACAACTGTGGAAGGAATAGGAAGCACCAAGACGAGGCTGCATCCT
GTGCAGGAGAGAATTGCCAAAAGCCACGGCTCCCAGTGCGGGTTCTGCACCCCTGGCATC
GTCATGAGTATGTACACACTGCTCCGGAATCAGCCCGAGCCCACCATGGAGGAGATTGAG
AATGCCTTCCAAGGAAATCTGTGCCGCTGCACAGGCTACAGACCCATCCTCCAGGGCTTC
CGGACCTTTGCCAGGGATGGTGGATGCTGTGGAGGAGATGGGAATAATCCAAATTGCTGC
ATGAACCAGAAGAAAGACCACTCAGTCAGCCTCTCGCCATCTTTATTCAAACCAGAGGAG
TTCACGCCCCTGGATCCAACCCAGGAGCCCATTTTTCCCCCAGAGTTGCTGAGGCTGAAA
GACACTCCTCGGAAGCAGCTGCGATTTGAAGGGGAGCGTGTGACGTGGATACAGGCCTCA
ACCCTCAAGGAGCTGCTGGACCTCAAGGCTCAGCACCCTGACGCCAAGCTGGTCGTGGGG
AACACGGAGATTGGCATTGAGATGAAGTTCAAGAATATGCTGTTTCCTATGATTGTCTGC
CCAGCCTGGATCCCTGAGCTGAATTCGGTAGAACATGGACCCGACGGTATCTCCTTTGGA
GCTGCTTGCCCCCTGAGCATTGTGGAAAAAACCCTGGTGGATGCTGTTGCTAAGCTTCCT
GCCCAAAAGACAGAGGTGTTCAGAGGGGTCCTGGAGCAGCTGCGCTGGTTTGCTGGGAAG
CAAGTCAAGTCTGTGGCGTCCGTTGGAGGGAACATCATCACTGCCAGCCCCATCTCCGAC
CTCAACCCCGTGTTCATGGCCAGTGGGGCCAAGCTGACACTTGTGTCCAGAGGCACCAGG
AGAACTGTCCAGATGGACCACACCTTCTTCCCTGGCTACAGAAAGACCCTGCTGAGCCCG
GAGGAGATACTGCTCTCCATAGAGATCCCCTACAGCAGGGAGGGGGAGTATTTCTCAGCA
TTCAAGCAGGCCTCCCGGAGAGAAGATGACATTGCCAAGGTAACCAGTGGCATGAGAGTT
TTATTCAAGCCAGGAACCACAGAGGTACAGGAGCTGGCCCTTTGCTATGGTGGAATGGCC
AACAGAACCATCTCAGCCCTCAAGACCACTCAGAGGCAGCTTTCCAAGCTCTGGAAGGAG
GAGCTGCTGCAGGACGTGTGTGCAGGACTGGCAGAGGAGCTGCATCTGCCTCCCGATGCC
CCTGGTGGCATGGTGGACTTCCGGTGCACCCTCACCCTCAGCTTCTTCTTCAAGTTCTAC
CTGACAGTCCTTCAGAAGCTGGGCCAAGAGAACCTGGAAGACAAGTGTGGTAAACTGGAC
CCCACTTTCGCCAGTGCAACTTTACTGTTTCAGAAAGACCCCCCAGCCGATGTCCAGCTC
TTCCAAGAGGTGCCCAAGGGTCAGTCTGAGGAGGACATGGTGGGCCGGCCCCTGCCCCAC
CTGGCAGCGGACATGCAGGCCTCTGGTGAGGCCGTGTACTGTGACGACATTCCTCGCTAC
GAGAATGAGCTGTCTCTCCGGCTGGTCACCAGCACCCGGGCCCACGCCAAGATCAAGTCC
ATAGATACATCAGAAGCTAAGAAGGTTCCAGGGTTTGTTTGTTTCATTTCCGCTGATGAT
GTTCCTGGGAGTAACATAACTGGAATTTGTAATGATGAGACAGTCTTTGCGAAGGATAAG
GTTACTTGTGTTGGGCATATCATTGGTGCTGTGGTTGCTGACACCCCGGAACACACACAG
AGAGCTGCCCAAGGGGTGAAAATCACCTATGAAGAACTACCAGCCATTATCACAATTGAG
GATGCTATAAAGAACAACTCCTTTTATGGACCTGAGCTGAAGATCGAGAAAGGGGACCTA
AAGAAGGGGTTTTCCGAAGCAGATAATGTTGTGTCAGGGGAGATATACATCGGTGGCCAA
GAGCACTTCTACCTGGAGACTCACTGCACCATTGCTGTTCCAAAAGGCGAGGCAGGGGAG
ATGGAGCTCTTTGTGTCTACACAGAACACCATGAAGACCCAGAGCTTTGTTGCAAAAATG
TTGGGGGTTCCAGCAAACCGGATTGTGGTTCGAGTGAAGAGAATGGGAGGAGGCTTTGGA
GGCAAGGAGACCCGGAGCACTGTGGTGTCCACGGCAGTGGCCCTGGCTGCATATAAGACC
GGCCGCCCTGTGCGATGCATGCTGGACCGTGATGAGGACATGCTGATAACTGGTGGCAGA
CATCCCTTCCTGGCCAGATACAAGGTTGGCTTCATGAAGACTGGGACAGTTGTGGCTCTT
GAGGTGGACCACTTCAGCAATGTGGGGAACACCCAGGATCTCTCTCAGAGTATTATGGAA
CGAGCTTTATTCCACATGGACAACTGCTATAAAATCCCCAACATCCGGGGCACTGGGCGG
CTGTGCAAAACCAACCTTCCCTCCAACACGGCCTTCCGGGGCTTTGGGGGGCCCCAGGGG
ATGCTCATTGCCGAGTGCTGGATGAGTGAAGTTGCAGTGACCTGTGGGATGCCTGCAGAG
GAGGTGCGGAGAAAAAACCTGTACAAAGAAGGGGACCTGACACACTTCAACCAGAAGCTT
GAGGGTTTCACCTTGCCCAGATGCTGGGAAGAATGCCTAGCAAGCTCTCAGTATCATGCT
CGGAAGAGTGAGGTTGACAAGTTCAACAAGGAGAATTGTTGGAAAAAGAGAGGATTGTGC
ATAATTCCCACCAAGTTTGGAATAAGCTTTACAGTTCCTTTTCTGAATCAGGCAGGAGCC
CTACTTCATGTGTACACAGATGGCTCTGTGCTGCTGACCCACGGGGGGACTGAGATGGGC
CAAGGCCTTCATACCAAAATGGTCCAGGTGGCCAGTAGAGCTCTGAAAATCCCCACCTCT
AAGATTTATATCAGCGAGACAAGCACTAACACTGTGCCCAACACCTCTCCCACGGCTGCC
TCTGTCAGCGCTGACCTCAATGGACAGGCCGTCTATGCGGCTTGTCAGACCATCTTGAAA
AGGCTGGAACCCTACAAGAAGAAGAATCCCAGTGGCTCCTGGGAAGACTGGGTCACAGCT
GCCTACATGGACACAGTGAGCTTGTCTGCCACTGGGTTTTATAGAACACCCAATCTGGGC
TACAGCTTTGAGACTAACTCAGGGAACCCCTTCCACTACTTCAGCTATGGGGTGGCTTGC
TCTGAAGTAGAAATCGACTGCCTAACAGGAGATCATAAGAACCTCCGCACAGATATTGTC
ATGGATGTTGGCTCCAGTCTAAACCCTGCCATTGATATTGGACAGGTGGAAGGGGCATTT
GTCCAGGGCCTTGGCCTCTTCACCCTAGAGGAGCTACACTATTCCCCCGAGGGGAGCCTG
CACACCCGTGGCCCTAGCACCTACAAGATCCCGGCATTTGGCAGCATCCCCATTGAGTTC
AGGGTGTCCCTGCTCCGCGACTGCCCCAACAAGAAGGCCATCTATGCATCGAAGGCTGTT
GGAGAGCCGCCCCTCTTCCTGGCTGCTTCTATCTTCTTTGCCATCAAAGATGCCATCCGT
GCAGCTCGAGCTCAGCACACAGGTAATAACGTGAAGGAACTCTTCCGGCTAGACAGCCCT
GCCACCCCGGAGAAGATCCGCAATGCCTGCGTGGACAAGTTCACCACCCTGTGTGTCACT
GGTGTCCCAGAAAACTGCAAACCCTGGTCTGTGAGGGTCTAA
GenBank Gene IDD11456
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDXDH
HGNC IDHGNC:12805
Chromosome Location2
Locus2p23.1
References
  1. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T: Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene. Gene. 1993 Nov 15;133(2):279-84. 8224915
  2. Xu P, Huecksteadt TP, Harrison R, Hoidal JR: Molecular cloning, tissue expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Mar 15;199(2):998-1004. 8135849
  3. Xu P, Huecksteadt TP, Harrison R, Hoidal JR: Molecular cloning, tissue expression of human xanthine dehydrogenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Oct 4;215(1):429. 7575623
  4. Saksela M, Raivio KO: Cloning and expression in vitro of human xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase. Biochem J. 1996 Apr 1;315 ( Pt 1):235-9. 8670112
  5. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Kamatani N, Nishino T, Hosoya T, Sakai O: Identification of two mutations in human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for classical type I xanthinuria. J Clin Invest. 1997 May 15;99(10):2391-7. 9153281
  6. Levartovsky D, Lagziel A, Sperling O, Liberman U, Yaron M, Hosoya T, Ichida K, Peretz H: XDH gene mutation is the underlying cause of classical xanthinuria: a second report. Kidney Int. 2000 Jun;57(6):2215-20. 10844591
  7. Picariello G, Ferranti P, Mamone G, Roepstorff P, Addeo F: Identification of N-linked glycoproteins in human milk by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2008 Sep;8(18):3833-47. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200701057. 18780401
  8. Bian Y, Song C, Cheng K, Dong M, Wang F, Huang J, Sun D, Wang L, Ye M, Zou H: An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome. J Proteomics. 2014 Jan 16;96:253-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014. Epub 2013 Nov 22. 24275569
  9. Yamaguchi Y, Matsumura T, Ichida K, Okamoto K, Nishino T: Human xanthine oxidase changes its substrate specificity to aldehyde oxidase type upon mutation of amino acid residues in the active site: roles of active site residues in binding and activation of purine substrate. J Biochem. 2007 Apr;141(4):513-24. Epub 2007 Feb 14. 17301077
  10. Sakamoto N, Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Teranishi T, Toyoda M, Onishi Y, Kuroda S, Sakaguchi K, Fujisawa T, Maeda M, Hada T: Identification of a new point mutation in the human xanthine dehydrogenase gene responsible for a case of classical type I xanthinuria. Hum Genet. 2001 Apr;108(4):279-83. 11379872
  11. Gok F, Ichida K, Topaloglu R: Mutational analysis of the xanthine dehydrogenase gene in a Turkish family with autosomal recessive classical xanthinuria. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003 Nov;18(11):2278-83. 14551354
  12. Sjoblom T, Jones S, Wood LD, Parsons DW, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE: The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74. Epub 2006 Sep 7. 16959974