You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
NameAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2
Synonyms
  • 1.-.-.-
  • 3-alpha-HSD3
  • Chlordecone reductase homolog HAKRD
  • DD-2
  • DD/BABP
  • DD2
  • DDH2
  • Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 2
  • Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase/bile acid-binding protein
  • Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase
  • Type III 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
Gene NameAKR1C2
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0001240|Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2
MDSKYQCVKLNDGHFMPVLGFGTYAPAEVPKSKALEAVKLAIEAGFHHIDSAHVYNNEEQ
VGLAIRSKIADGSVKREDIFYTSKLWSNSHRPELVRPALERSLKNLQLDYVDLYLIHFPV
SVKPGEEVIPKDENGKILFDTVDLCATWEAMEKCKDAGLAKSIGVSNFNHRLLEMILNKP
GLKYKPVCNQVECHPYFNQRKLLDFCKSKDIVLVAYSALGSHREEPWVDPNSPVLLEDPV
LCALAKKHKRTPALIALRYQLQRGVVVLAKSYNEQRIRQNVQVFEFQLTSEEMKAIDGLN
RNVRYLTLDIFAGPPNYPFSDEY
Number of residues323
Molecular Weight36734.97
Theoretical pI7.55
GO Classification
Functions
  • bile acid binding
  • oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H, quinone or similar compound as acceptor
  • alditol
  • carboxylic acid binding
  • ketosteroid monooxygenase activity
  • phenanthrene 9,10-monooxygenase activity
  • trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Processes
  • cellular response to jasmonic acid stimulus
  • daunorubicin metabolic process
  • digestion
  • doxorubicin metabolic process
  • epithelial cell differentiation
  • progesterone metabolic process
  • oxidation-reduction process
  • steroid metabolic process
  • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation
  • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling
  • cellular response to prostaglandin D stimulus
  • prostaglandin metabolic process
Components
  • cytoplasm
General FunctionTrans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific FunctionWorks in concert with the 5-alpha/5-beta-steroid reductases to convert steroid hormones into the 3-alpha/5-alpha and 3-alpha/5-beta-tetrahydrosteroids. Catalyzes the inactivation of the most potent androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5-alpha-DHT) to 5-alpha-androstane-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol). Has a high bile-binding ability.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID531160
UniProtKB IDP52895
UniProtKB Entry NameAK1C2_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010433|Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2 (AKR1C2)
ATGGATTCGAAATACCAGTGTGTGAAGCTGAATGATGGTCACTTCATGCCTGTCCTGGGA
TTTGGCACCTATGCGCCTGCAGAGGTTCCTAAAAGTAAAGCTCTAGAGGCCGTCAAATTG
GCAATAGAAGCCGGGTTCCACCATATTGATTCTGCACATGTTTACAATAATGAGGAGCAG
GTTGGACTGGCCATCCGAAGCAAGATTGCAGATGGCAGTGTGAAGAGAGAAGACATATTC
TACACTTCAAAGCTTTGGAGCAATTCCCATCGACCAGAGTTGGTCCGACCAGCCTTGGAA
AGGTCACTGAAAAATCTTCAATTGGACTATGTTGACCTCTATCTTATTCATTTTCCAGTG
TCTGTAAAGGAGGACATAGGGATTTTAACATGGAAGAAGAGCCCTAAACATAACTCCTAA
GenBank Gene IDU05598
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDAKR1C2
HGNC IDHGNC:385
Chromosome Location10
Locus10p15-p14
References
  1. Qin KN, New MI, Cheng KC: Molecular cloning of multiple cDNAs encoding human enzymes structurally related to 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993 Dec;46(6):673-9. 8274401
  2. Ciaccio PJ, Tew KD: cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences of a human colon dihydrodiol dehydrogenase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Jun 28;1186(1-2):129-32. 8011662
  3. Qin KN, Khanna M, Cheng KC: Structure of a gene coding for human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase/bile acid-binding protein. Gene. 1994 Nov 18;149(2):357-61. 7959017
  4. Dufort I, Soucy P, Labrie F, Luu-The V: Molecular cloning of human type 3 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that differs from 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by seven amino acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Nov 12;228(2):474-9. 8920937
  5. Shiraishi H, Ishikura S, Matsuura K, Deyashiki Y, Ninomiya M, Sakai S, Hara A: Sequence of the cDNA of a human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoform (AKR1C2) and tissue distribution of its mRNA. Biochem J. 1998 Sep 1;334 ( Pt 2):399-405. 9716498
  6. Nishizawa M, Nakajima T, Yasuda K, Kanzaki H, Sasaguri Y, Watanabe K, Ito S: Close kinship of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene with three aldo-keto reductase genes. Genes Cells. 2000 Feb;5(2):111-25. 10672042
  7. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. 14702039
  8. Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR, Rogers J: The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10. Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):375-81. 15164054
  9. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. 15489334
  10. Hara A, Matsuura K, Tamada Y, Sato K, Miyabe Y, Deyashiki Y, Ishida N: Relationship of human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenases to hepatic bile-acid-binding protein and an oxidoreductase of human colon cells. Biochem J. 1996 Jan 15;313 ( Pt 2):373-6. 8573067
  11. Stolz A, Hammond L, Lou H, Takikawa H, Ronk M, Shively JE: cDNA cloning and expression of the human hepatic bile acid-binding protein. A member of the monomeric reductase gene family. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 15;268(14):10448-57. 8486699
  12. Fluck CE, Meyer-Boni M, Pandey AV, Kempna P, Miller WL, Schoenle EJ, Biason-Lauber A: Why boys will be boys: two pathways of fetal testicular androgen biosynthesis are needed for male sexual differentiation. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Aug 12;89(2):201-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.06.009. Epub 2011 Jul 28. 21802064
  13. Jin Y, Stayrook SE, Albert RH, Palackal NT, Penning TM, Lewis M: Crystal structure of human type III 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/bile acid binding protein complexed with NADP(+) and ursodeoxycholate. Biochemistry. 2001 Aug 28;40(34):10161-8. 11513593
  14. Nahoum V, Gangloff A, Legrand P, Zhu DW, Cantin L, Zhorov BS, Luu-The V, Labrie F, Breton R, Lin SX: Structure of the human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 in complex with testosterone and NADP at 1.25-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 9;276(45):42091-8. Epub 2001 Aug 20. 11514561
  15. Couture JF, de Jesus-Tran KP, Roy AM, Cantin L, Cote PL, Legrand P, Luu-The V, Labrie F, Breton R: Comparison of crystal structures of human type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase reveals an "induced-fit" mechanism and a conserved basic motif involved in the binding of androgen. Protein Sci. 2005 Jun;14(6):1485-97. 15929998
  16. Faucher F, Pereira de Jesus-Tran K, Cantin L, Luu-The V, Labrie F, Breton R: Crystal structures of mouse 17alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (apoenzyme and enzyme-NADP(H) binary complex): identification of molecular determinants responsible for the unique 17alpha-reductive activity of this enzyme. J Mol Biol. 2006 Dec 8;364(4):747-63. Epub 2006 Sep 16. 17034817
  17. Faucher F, Cantin L, Pereira de Jesus-Tran K, Lemieux M, Luu-The V, Labrie F, Breton R: Mouse 17alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C21) binds steroids differently from other aldo-keto reductases: identification and characterization of amino acid residues critical for substrate binding. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jun 1;369(2):525-40. Epub 2007 Mar 27. 17442338