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NameProtein S100-A12
Synonyms
  • CAAF1
  • CAGC
  • Calcium-binding protein in amniotic fluid 1
  • Calgranulin-C
  • CGRP
  • EN-RAGE
  • Extracellular newly identified RAGE-binding protein
  • Migration inhibitory factor-related protein 6
  • MRP-6
  • Neutrophil S100 protein
  • p6
  • S100 calcium-binding protein A12
Gene NameS100A12
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010840|Protein S100-A12
MTKLEEHLEGIVNIFHQYSVRKGHFDTLSKGELKQLLTKELANTIKNIKDKAVIDEIFQG
LDANQDEQVDFQEFISLVAIALKAAHYHTHKE
Number of residues92
Molecular Weight10574.975
Theoretical pI6.23
GO Classification
Functions
  • zinc ion binding
  • copper ion binding
  • calcium ion binding
  • RAGE receptor binding
Processes
  • defense response to bacterium
  • mast cell activation
  • neutrophil chemotaxis
  • positive regulation of inflammatory response
  • xenobiotic metabolic process
  • positive regulation of MAP kinase activity
  • monocyte chemotaxis
  • positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling
  • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity
  • cytokine secretion
  • defense response to fungus
  • killing of cells of other organism
  • inflammatory response
  • innate immune response
Components
  • cytoplasm
  • cytoskeleton
  • extracellular region
  • nucleus
  • plasma membrane
  • cytosol
General FunctionZinc ion binding
Specific FunctionS100A12 is a calcium-, zinc- and copper-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. Its proinflammatory activity involves recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1. Acts as a monocyte and mast cell chemoattractant. Can stimulate mast cell degranulation and activation which generates chemokines, histamine and cytokines inducing further leukocyte recruitment to the sites of inflammation. Can inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases; MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 by chelating Zn(2+) from their active sites. Possesses filariacidal and filariastatic activity. Calcitermin possesses antifungal activity against C.albicans and is also active against E.coli and P.aeruginosa but not L.monocytogenes and S.aureus.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID1545946
UniProtKB IDP80511
UniProtKB Entry NameS10AC_HUMAN
Cellular LocationSecreted
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0010841|Protein S100-A12 (S100A12)
ATGACAAAACTTGAAGAGCATCTGGAGGGAATTGTCAATATCTTCCACCAATACTCAGTT
CGGAAGGGGCATTTTGACACCCTCTCTAAGGGTGAGCTGAAGCAGCTGCTTACAAAGGAG
CTTGCAAACACCATCAAGAATATCAAAGATAAAGCTGTCATTGATGAAATATTCCAAGGC
CTGGATGCTAATCAAGATGAACAGGTCGACTTTCAAGAATTCATATCCCTGGTAGCCATT
GCGCTGAAGGCTGCCCATTACCACACCCACAAAGAGTAG
GenBank Gene IDX97859
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDS100A12
HGNC IDHGNC:10489
Chromosome Location1
Locus1q21
References
  1. Yamamura T, Hitomi J, Nagasaki K, Suzuki M, Takahashi E, Saito S, Tsukada T, Yamaguchi K: Human CAAF1 gene--molecular cloning, gene structure, and chromosome mapping. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Apr 16;221(2):356-60. 8619860
  2. Wicki R, Marenholz I, Mischke D, Schafer BW, Heizmann CW: Characterization of the human S100A12 (calgranulin C, p6, CAAF1, CGRP) gene, a new member of the S100 gene cluster on chromosome 1q21. Cell Calcium. 1996 Dec;20(6):459-64. 8985590
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  6. Ilg EC, Troxler H, Burgisser DM, Kuster T, Markert M, Guignard F, Hunziker P, Birchler N, Heizmann CW: Amino acid sequence determination of human S100A12 (P6, calgranulin C, CGRP, CAAF1) by tandem mass spectrometry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Aug 5;225(1):146-50. 8769108
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