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NameGlutamate decarboxylase 2
Synonyms
  • 4.1.1.15
  • 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase
  • GAD-65
  • GAD65
  • Glutamate decarboxylase 65 kDa isoform
Gene NameGAD2
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0001201|Glutamate decarboxylase 2
MASPGSGFWSFGSEDGSGDSENPGTARAWCQVAQKFTGGIGNKLCALLYGDAEKPAESGG
SQPPRAAARKAACACDQKPCSCSKVDVNYAFLHATDLLPACDGERPTLAFLQDVMNILLQ
YVVKSFDRSTKVIDFHYPNELLQEYNWELADQPQNLEEILMHCQTTLKYAIKTGHPRYFN
QLSTGLDMVGLAADWLTSTANTNMFTYEIAPVFVLLEYVTLKKMREIIGWPGGSGDGIFS
PGGAISNMYAMMIARFKMFPEVKEKGMAALPRLIAFTSEHSHFSLKKGAAALGIGTDSVI
LIKCDERGKMIPSDLERRILEAKQKGFVPFLVSATAGTTVYGAFDPLLAVADICKKYKIW
MHVDAAWGGGLLMSRKHKWKLSGVERANSVTWNPHKMMGVPLQCSALLVREEGLMQNCNQ
MHASYLFQQDKHYDLSYDTGDKALQCGRHVDVFKLWLMWRAKGTTGFEAHVDKCLELAEY
LYNIIKNREGYEMVFDGKPQHTNVCFWYIPPSLRTLEDNEERMSRLSKVAPVIKARMMEY
GTTMVSYQPLGDKVNFFRMVISNPAATHQDIDFLIEEIERLGQDL
Number of residues585
Molecular Weight65410.77
Theoretical pI6.89
GO Classification
Functions
  • glutamate binding
  • pyridoxal phosphate binding
  • glutamate decarboxylase activity
Processes
  • neurotransmitter biosynthetic process
  • response to drug
  • glutamate decarboxylation to succinate
  • synaptic transmission
  • neurotransmitter secretion
Components
  • presynaptic membrane
  • axon
  • anchored component of membrane
  • synaptic vesicle membrane
  • clathrin-sculpted gamma-aminobutyric acid transport vesicle membrane
  • plasma membrane
  • inhibitory synapse
  • cell junction
  • cytosol
  • perinuclear region of cytoplasm
  • Golgi membrane
General FunctionPyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific FunctionCatalyzes the production of GABA.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane RegionsNot Available
GenBank Protein ID182934
UniProtKB IDQ05329
UniProtKB Entry NameDCE2_HUMAN
Cellular LocationCytoplasm
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0018979|Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)
ATGGCATCTCCGGGCTCTGGCTTTTGGTCTTTCGGGTCGGAAGATGGCTCTGGGGATTCC
GAGAATCCCGGCACAGCGCGAGCCTGGTGCCAAGTGGCTCAGAAGTTCACGGGCGGCATC
GGAAACAAACTGTGCGCCCTGCTCTACGGAGACGCCGAGAAGCCGGCGGAGAGCGGCGGG
AGCCAACCCCCGCGGGCCGCCGCCCGGAAGGCCGCCTGCGCCTGCGACCAGAAGCCCTGC
AGCTGCTCCAAAGTGGATGTCAACTACGCGTTTCTCCATGCAACAGACCTGCTGCCGGCG
TGTGATGGAGAAAGGCCCACTTTGGCGTTTCTGCAAGATGTTATGAACATTTTACTTCAG
TATGTGGTGAAAAGTTTCGATAGATCAACCAAAGTGATTGATTTCCATTATCCTAATGAG
CTTCTCCAAGAATATAATTGGGAATTGGCAGACCAACCACAAAATTTGGAGGAAATTTTG
ATGCATTGCCAAACAACTCTAAAATATGCAATTAAAACAGGGCATCCTAGATACTTCAAT
CAACTTTCTACTGGTTTGGATATGGTTGGATTAGCAGCAGACTGGCTGACATCAACAGCA
AATACTAACATGTTCACCTATGAAATTGCTCCAGTATTTGTGCTTTTGGAATATGTCACA
CTAAAGAAAATGAGAGAAATCATTGGCTGGCCAGGGGGCTCTGGCGATGGGATATTTTCT
CCCGGTGGCGCCATATCTAACATGTATGCCATGATGATCGCACGCTTTAAGATGTTCCCA
GAAGTCAAGGAGAAAGGAATGGCTGCTCTTCCCAGGCTCATTGCCTTCACGTCTGAACAT
AGTCATTTTTCTCTCAAGAAGGGAGCTGCAGCCTTAGGGATTGGAACAGACAGCGTGATT
CTGATTAAATGTGATGAGAGAGGGAAAATGATTCCATCTGATCTTGAAAGAAGGATTCTT
GAAGCCAAACAGAAAGGGTTTGTTCCTTTCCTCGTGAGTGCCACAGCTGGAACCACCGTG
TACGGAGCATTTGACCCCCTCTTAGCTGTCGCTGACATTTGCAAAAAGTATAAGATCTGG
ATGCATGTGGATGCAGCTTGGGGTGGGGGATTACTGATGTCCCGAAAACACAAGTGGAAA
CTGAGTGGCGTGGAGAGGGCCAACTCTGTGACGTGGAATCCACACAAGATGATGGGAGTC
CCTTTGCAGTGCTCTGCTCTCCTGGTTAGAGAAGAGGGATTGATGCAGAATTGCAACCAA
ATGCATGCCTCCTACCTCTTTCAGCAAGATAAACATTATGACCTGTCCTATGACACTGGA
GACAAGGCCTTACAGTGCGGACGCCACGTTGATGTTTTTAAACTATGGCTGATGTGGAGG
GCAAAGGGGACTACCGGGTTTGAAGCGCATGTTGATAAATGTTTGGAGTTGGCAGAGTAT
TTATACAACATCATAAAAAACCGAGAAGGATATGAGATGGTGTTTGATGGGAAGCCTCAG
CACACAAATGTCTGCTTCTGGTACATTCCTCCAAGCTTGCGTACTCTGGAAGACAATGAA
GAGAGAATGAGTCGCCTCTCGAAGGTGGCTCCAGTGATTAAAGCCAGAATGATGGAGTAT
GGAACCACAATGGTCAGCTACCAACCCTTGGGAGACAAGGTCAATTTCTTCCGCATGGTC
ATCTCAAACCCAGCGGCAACTCACCAAGACATTGACTTCCTGATTGAAGAAATAGAACGC
CTTGGACAAGATTTATAA
GenBank Gene IDM81882
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDGAD2
HGNC IDHGNC:4093
Chromosome Location10
Locus10p11.23
References
  1. Karlsen AE, Hagopian WA, Grubin CE, Dube S, Disteche CM, Adler DA, Barmeier H, Mathewes S, Grant FJ, Foster D, et al.: Cloning and primary structure of a human islet isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase from chromosome 10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Oct 1;88(19):8337-41. 1924293
  2. Bu DF, Erlander MG, Hitz BC, Tillakaratne NJ, Kaufman DL, Wagner-McPherson CB, Evans GA, Tobin AJ: Two human glutamate decarboxylases, 65-kDa GAD and 67-kDa GAD, are each encoded by a single gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 15;89(6):2115-9. 1549570
  3. Bu DF, Tobin AJ: The exon-intron organization of the genes (GAD1 and GAD2) encoding two human glutamate decarboxylases (GAD67 and GAD65) suggests that they derive from a common ancestral GAD. Genomics. 1994 May 1;21(1):222-8. 8088791
  4. Mauch L, Abney CC, Berg H, Scherbaum WA, Liedvogel B, Northemann W: Characterization of a linear epitope within the human pancreatic 64-kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase and its autoimmune recognition by sera from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Eur J Biochem. 1993 Mar 1;212(2):597-603. 7680313
  5. Kim J, Richter W, Aanstoot HJ, Shi Y, Fu Q, Rajotte R, Warnock G, Baekkeskov S: Differential expression of GAD65 and GAD67 in human, rat, and mouse pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 1993 Dec;42(12):1799-808. 8243826
  6. Namchuk M, Lindsay L, Turck CW, Kanaani J, Baekkeskov S: Phosphorylation of serine residues 3, 6, 10, and 13 distinguishes membrane anchored from soluble glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and is restricted to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65alpha. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jan 17;272(3):1548-57. 8999827
  7. Kanaani J, el-Husseini Ael-D, Aguilera-Moreno A, Diacovo JM, Bredt DS, Baekkeskov S: A combination of three distinct trafficking signals mediates axonal targeting and presynaptic clustering of GAD65. J Cell Biol. 2002 Sep 30;158(7):1229-38. 12356867
  8. Corper AL, Stratmann T, Apostolopoulos V, Scott CA, Garcia KC, Kang AS, Wilson IA, Teyton L: A structural framework for deciphering the link between I-Ag7 and autoimmune diabetes. Science. 2000 Apr 21;288(5465):505-11. 10775108
  9. Fenalti G, Law RH, Buckle AM, Langendorf C, Tuck K, Rosado CJ, Faux NG, Mahmood K, Hampe CS, Banga JP, Wilce M, Schmidberger J, Rossjohn J, El-Kabbani O, Pike RN, Smith AI, Mackay IR, Rowley MJ, Whisstock JC: GABA production by glutamic acid decarboxylase is regulated by a dynamic catalytic loop. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;14(4):280-6. Epub 2007 Mar 25. 17384644