You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
NameATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11
Synonyms
  • IKATP
  • Inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir6.2
  • Potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J member 11
Gene NameKCNJ11
OrganismHuman
Amino acid sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0001412|ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 11
MLSRKGIIPEEYVLTRLAEDPAEPRYRARQRRARFVSKKGNCNVAHKNIREQGRFLQDVF
TTLVDLKWPHTLLIFTMSFLCSWLLFAMAWWLIAFAHGDLAPSEGTAEPCVTSIHSFSSA
FLFSIEVQVTIGFGGRMVTEECPLAILILIVQNIVGLMINAIMLGCIFMKTAQAHRRAET
LIFSKHAVIALRHGRLCFMLRVGDLRKSMIISATIHMQVVRKTTSPEGEVVPLHQVDIPM
ENGVGGNSIFLVAPLIIYHVIDANSPLYDLAPSDLHHHQDLEIIVILEGVVETTGITTQA
RTSYLADEILWGQRFVPIVAEEDGRYSVDYSKFGNTIKVPTPLCTARQLDEDHSLLEALT
LASARGPLRKRSVPMAKAKPKFSISPDSLS
Number of residues390
Molecular Weight43540.375
Theoretical pI8.1
GO Classification
Functions
  • ATP-activated inward rectifier potassium channel activity
  • ankyrin binding
  • ion channel binding
  • potassium ion binding
  • ATP binding
  • voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Processes
  • positive regulation of cation channel activity
  • synaptic transmission
  • response to ischemia
  • small molecule metabolic process
  • response to testosterone
  • glucose metabolic process
  • regulation of membrane potential
  • negative regulation of insulin secretion
  • transmembrane transport
  • cellular response to tumor necrosis factor
  • response to ATP
  • response to estradiol
  • neurological system process
  • energy reserve metabolic process
  • regulation of ion transmembrane transport
  • regulation of insulin secretion
  • response to drug
  • potassium ion transmembrane transport
  • cellular response to glucose stimulus
  • potassium ion import
  • cellular response to nicotine
Components
  • intercalated disc
  • T-tubule
  • cytosol
  • neuronal cell body
  • myelin sheath
  • integral component of plasma membrane
  • axolemma
  • mitochondrion
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex
  • endosome
  • cell body fiber
  • plasma membrane
  • nuclear envelope
  • voltage-gated potassium channel complex
General FunctionVoltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific FunctionThis receptor is controlled by G proteins. Inward rectifier potassium channels are characterized by a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. Their voltage dependence is regulated by the concentration of extracellular potassium; as external potassium is raised, the voltage range of the channel opening shifts to more positive voltages. The inward rectification is mainly due to the blockage of outward current by internal magnesium. Can be blocked by extracellular barium (By similarity). Subunit of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Can form cardiac and smooth muscle-type KATP channels with ABCC9. KCNJ11 forms the channel pore while ABCC9 is required for activation and regulation.
Pfam Domain Function
Transmembrane Regions69-93 145-166
GenBank Protein ID1088445
UniProtKB IDQ14654
UniProtKB Entry NameKCJ11_HUMAN
Cellular LocationMembrane
Gene sequence
>lcl|BSEQ0001411|1173 bp
ATGCTGTCCCGCAAGGGCATCATCCCCGAGGAATACGTGCTGACACGCCTGGCAGAGGAC
CCTGCCGAGCCCAGGTACCGTGCCCGCCAGCGGAGGGCCCGCTTTGTGTCCAAGAAAGGC
AACTGCAACGTGGCCCACAAGAACATCCGGGAGCAGGGCCGCTTCCTGCAGGACGTGTTC
ACCACGCTGGTGGACCTCAAGTGGCCACACACATTGCTCATCTTCACCATGTCCTTCCTG
TGCAGCTGGCTGCTCTTCGCCATGGCCTGGTGGCTCATCGCCTTCGCCCACGGTGACCTG
GCCCCCAGCGAGGGCACTGCTGAGCCCTGTGTCACCAGCATCCACTCCTTCTCGTCTGCC
TTCCTTTTCTCCATTGAGGTCCAAGTGACTATTGGCTTTGGGGGGCGCATGGTGACTGAG
GAGTGCCCACTGGCCATCCTGAGCCTCATCGTGCAGAACATCGTGGGGCTCATGATCAAC
GCCATCATGCTTGGCTGCATCTTCATGAAGACTGCCCAAGCCCACCGCAGGGCTGAGACC
CTCATCTTCAGCAAGCATGCGGTGATCGCTCTGCGCCACGGCCGCCTCTGCTTCATGCTA
CGTGTGGGTGACCTCCGCAAGAGCATGATCATCAGCGCCACCATCCACATGCAGGTGGTA
CGCAAGACCACCAGCCCCGAGGGCGAGGTGGTGCCCCTCCACCAGGTGGACATCCCCATG
GAGAACGGCGTGGGTGGCAACAGCATCTTCCTGGTGGCCCCGCTGATCATCTACCATGTC
ATTGATGCCAACAGCCCACTCTACGACCTGGCACCCAGCGACCTGCACCACCACCAGGAC
CTCGAGATCATCGTCATCCTGGAAGGCGTGGTGGAAACCACGGGCATCACCACCCAGGCC
CGCACCTCCTACCTGGCCGATGAGATCCTGTGGGGCCAGCGCTTTGTGCCCATTGTAGCT
GAGGAGGACGGACGTTACTCTGTGGACTACTCCAAGTTTGGCAACACCATCAAAGTGCCC
ACACCACTCTGCACGGCCCGCCAGCTTGATGAGGACCACAGCCTACTGGAAGCTCTGACC
CTCGCCTCAGCCCGCGGGCCCCTGCGCAAGCGCAGCGTGCCCATGGCCAAGGCCAAGCCC
AAGTTCAGCATCTCTCCAGATTCCCTGTCCTGA
GenBank Gene IDD50582
GeneCard IDNot Available
GenAtlas IDKCNJ11
HGNC IDHGNC:6257
Chromosome LocationNot Available
Locus11p15.1
References
  1. Inagaki N, Gonoi T, Clement JP 4th, Namba N, Inazawa J, Gonzalez G, Aguilar-Bryan L, Seino S, Bryan J: Reconstitution of IKATP: an inward rectifier subunit plus the sulfonylurea receptor. Science. 1995 Nov 17;270(5239):1166-70. 7502040
  2. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. 14702039
  3. Taylor TD, Noguchi H, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Kuroki Y, Dewar K, Lloyd C, Itoh T, Takeda T, Kim DW, She X, Barlow KF, Bloom T, Bruford E, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Eichler E, FitzGerald MG, Jaffe DB, LaButti K, Nicol R, Park HS, Seaman C, Sougnez C, Yang X, Zimmer AR, Zody MC, Birren BW, Nusbaum C, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Rogers J, Lander ES, Sakaki Y: Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):497-500. 16554811
  4. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. 15489334
  5. Babenko AP, Gonzalez G, Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J: Reconstituted human cardiac KATP channels: functional identity with the native channels from the sarcolemma of human ventricular cells. Circ Res. 1998 Nov 30;83(11):1132-43. 9831708
  6. Ribalet B, John SA, Weiss JN: Molecular basis for Kir6.2 channel inhibition by adenine nucleotides. Biophys J. 2003 Jan;84(1):266-76. 12524280
  7. Shimomura K, Horster F, de Wet H, Flanagan SE, Ellard S, Hattersley AT, Wolf NI, Ashcroft F, Ebinger F: A novel mutation causing DEND syndrome: a treatable channelopathy of pancreas and brain. Neurology. 2007 Sep 25;69(13):1342-9. Epub 2007 Jul 25. 17652641
  8. Pinney SE, MacMullen C, Becker S, Lin YW, Hanna C, Thornton P, Ganguly A, Shyng SL, Stanley CA: Clinical characteristics and biochemical mechanisms of congenital hyperinsulinism associated with dominant KATP channel mutations. J Clin Invest. 2008 Aug;118(8):2877-86. doi: 10.1172/JCI35414. 18596924
  9. Taneja TK, Mankouri J, Karnik R, Kannan S, Smith AJ, Munsey T, Christesen HB, Beech DJ, Sivaprasadarao A: Sar1-GTPase-dependent ER exit of KATP channels revealed by a mutation causing congenital hyperinsulinism. Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Jul 1;18(13):2400-13. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp179. Epub 2009 Apr 8. 19357197
  10. Mannikko R, Jefferies C, Flanagan SE, Hattersley A, Ellard S, Ashcroft FM: Interaction between mutations in the slide helix of Kir6.2 associated with neonatal diabetes and neurological symptoms. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Mar 15;19(6):963-72. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddp554. Epub 2009 Dec 18. 20022885
  11. Meissner T, Beinbrech B, Mayatepek E: Congenital hyperinsulinism: molecular basis of a heterogeneous disease. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(5):351-61. 10338089
  12. Tammaro P, Ashcroft FM: A mutation in the ATP-binding site of the Kir6.2 subunit of the KATP channel alters coupling with the SUR2A subunit. J Physiol. 2007 Nov 1;584(Pt 3):743-53. Epub 2007 Sep 13. 17855752
  13. Lin YF, Chai Y: Functional modulation of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel by extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Neuroscience. 2008 Mar 18;152(2):371-80. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.01.003. Epub 2008 Jan 9. 18280666
  14. Bonnefond A, Philippe J, Durand E, Dechaume A, Huyvaert M, Montagne L, Marre M, Balkau B, Fajardy I, Vambergue A, Vatin V, Delplanque J, Le Guilcher D, De Graeve F, Lecoeur C, Sand O, Vaxillaire M, Froguel P: Whole-exome sequencing and high throughput genotyping identified KCNJ11 as the thirteenth MODY gene. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e37423. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037423. Epub 2012 Jun 11. 22701567
  15. Thomas PM, Cote GJ, Hallman DM, Mathew PM: Homozygosity mapping, to chromosome 11p, of the gene for familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Feb;56(2):416-21. 7847376
  16. Thomas P, Ye Y, Lightner E: Mutation of the pancreatic islet inward rectifier Kir6.2 also leads to familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Nov;5(11):1809-12. 8923010
  17. Sakura H, Wat N, Horton V, Millns H, Turner RC, Ashcroft FM: Sequence variations in the human Kir6.2 gene, a subunit of the beta-cell ATP-sensitive K-channel: no association with NIDDM in while Caucasian subjects or evidence of abnormal function when expressed in vitro. Diabetologia. 1996 Oct;39(10):1233-6. 8897013
  18. Inoue H, Ferrer J, Warren-Perry M, Zhang Y, Millns H, Turner RC, Elbein SC, Hampe CL, Suarez BK, Inagaki N, Seino S, Permutt MA: Sequence variants in the pancreatic islet beta-cell inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir6.2 (Bir) gene: identification and lack of role in Caucasian patients with NIDDM. Diabetes. 1997 Mar;46(3):502-7. 9032109
  19. Aguilar-Bryan L, Bryan J: Molecular biology of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels. Endocr Rev. 1999 Apr;20(2):101-35. 10204114
  20. Halushka MK, Fan JB, Bentley K, Hsie L, Shen N, Weder A, Cooper R, Lipshutz R, Chakravarti A: Patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for blood-pressure homeostasis. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):239-47. 10391210
  21. Huopio H, Jaaskelainen J, Komulainen J, Miettinen R, Karkkainen P, Laakso M, Tapanainen P, Voutilainen R, Otonkoski T: Acute insulin response tests for the differential diagnosis of congenital hyperinsulinism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct;87(10):4502-7. 12364426
  22. Sagen JV, Raeder H, Hathout E, Shehadeh N, Gudmundsson K, Baevre H, Abuelo D, Phornphutkul C, Molnes J, Bell GI, Gloyn AL, Hattersley AT, Molven A, Sovik O, Njolstad PR: Permanent neonatal diabetes due to mutations in KCNJ11 encoding Kir6.2: patient characteristics and initial response to sulfonylurea therapy. Diabetes. 2004 Oct;53(10):2713-8. 15448106
  23. Vaxillaire M, Populaire C, Busiah K, Cave H, Gloyn AL, Hattersley AT, Czernichow P, Froguel P, Polak M: Kir6.2 mutations are a common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes in a large cohort of French patients. Diabetes. 2004 Oct;53(10):2719-22. 15448107
  24. Gloyn AL, Cummings EA, Edghill EL, Harries LW, Scott R, Costa T, Temple IK, Hattersley AT, Ellard S: Permanent neonatal diabetes due to paternal germline mosaicism for an activating mutation of the KCNJ11 Gene encoding the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta-cell potassium adenosine triphosphate channel. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug;89(8):3932-5. 15292329
  25. Tornovsky S, Crane A, Cosgrove KE, Hussain K, Lavie J, Heyman M, Nesher Y, Kuchinski N, Ben-Shushan E, Shatz O, Nahari E, Potikha T, Zangen D, Tenenbaum-Rakover Y, de Vries L, Argente J, Gracia R, Landau H, Eliakim A, Lindley K, Dunne MJ, Aguilar-Bryan L, Glaser B: Hyperinsulinism of infancy: novel ABCC8 and KCNJ11 mutations and evidence for additional locus heterogeneity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Dec;89(12):6224-34. 15579781
  26. Gloyn AL, Pearson ER, Antcliff JF, Proks P, Bruining GJ, Slingerland AS, Howard N, Srinivasan S, Silva JM, Molnes J, Edghill EL, Frayling TM, Temple IK, Mackay D, Shield JP, Sumnik Z, van Rhijn A, Wales JK, Clark P, Gorman S, Aisenberg J, Ellard S, Njolstad PR, Ashcroft FM, Hattersley AT: Activating mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel subunit Kir6.2 and permanent neonatal diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 29;350(18):1838-49. 15115830
  27. Proks P, Antcliff JF, Lippiat J, Gloyn AL, Hattersley AT, Ashcroft FM: Molecular basis of Kir6.2 mutations associated with neonatal diabetes or neonatal diabetes plus neurological features. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 14;101(50):17539-44. Epub 2004 Dec 6. 15583126
  28. Ohkubo K, Nagashima M, Naito Y, Taguchi T, Suita S, Okamoto N, Fujinaga H, Tsumura K, Kikuchi K, Ono J: Genotypes of the pancreatic beta-cell K-ATP channel and clinical phenotypes of Japanese patients with persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Apr;62(4):458-65. 15807877
  29. Gloyn AL, Reimann F, Girard C, Edghill EL, Proks P, Pearson ER, Temple IK, Mackay DJ, Shield JP, Freedenberg D, Noyes K, Ellard S, Ashcroft FM, Gribble FM, Hattersley AT: Relapsing diabetes can result from moderately activating mutations in KCNJ11. Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Apr 1;14(7):925-34. Epub 2005 Feb 17. 15718250
  30. Massa O, Iafusco D, D'Amato E, Gloyn AL, Hattersley AT, Pasquino B, Tonini G, Dammacco F, Zanette G, Meschi F, Porzio O, Bottazzo G, Crino A, Lorini R, Cerutti F, Vanelli M, Barbetti F: KCNJ11 activating mutations in Italian patients with permanent neonatal diabetes. Hum Mutat. 2005 Jan;25(1):22-7. 15580558
  31. Henwood MJ, Kelly A, Macmullen C, Bhatia P, Ganguly A, Thornton PS, Stanley CA: Genotype-phenotype correlations in children with congenital hyperinsulinism due to recessive mutations of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel genes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb;90(2):789-94. Epub 2004 Nov 23. 15562009
  32. Yorifuji T, Nagashima K, Kurokawa K, Kawai M, Oishi M, Akazawa Y, Hosokawa M, Yamada Y, Inagaki N, Nakahata T: The C42R mutation in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) gene as a cause of transient neonatal diabetes, childhood diabetes, or later-onset, apparently type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun;90(6):3174-8. Epub 2005 Mar 22. 15784703
  33. Marthinet E, Bloc A, Oka Y, Tanizawa Y, Wehrle-Haller B, Bancila V, Dubuis JM, Philippe J, Schwitzgebel VM: Severe congenital hyperinsulinism caused by a mutation in the Kir6.2 subunit of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel impairing trafficking and function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;90(9):5401-6. Epub 2005 Jul 5. 15998776
  34. Shimomura K, Girard CA, Proks P, Nazim J, Lippiat JD, Cerutti F, Lorini R, Ellard S, Hattersley AT, Barbetti F, Ashcroft FM: Mutations at the same residue (R50) of Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) that cause neonatal diabetes produce different functional effects. Diabetes. 2006 Jun;55(6):1705-12. 16731833
  35. Flanagan SE, Edghill EL, Gloyn AL, Ellard S, Hattersley AT: Mutations in KCNJ11, which encodes Kir6.2, are a common cause of diabetes diagnosed in the first 6 months of life, with the phenotype determined by genotype. Diabetologia. 2006 Jun;49(6):1190-7. Epub 2006 Apr 12. 16609879
  36. Fernandez-Marmiesse A, Salas A, Vega A, Fernandez-Lorenzo JR, Barreiro J, Carracedo A: Mutation spectra of ABCC8 gene in Spanish patients with Hyperinsulinism of Infancy (HI). Hum Mutat. 2006 Feb;27(2):214. 16429405
  37. Lin YW, MacMullen C, Ganguly A, Stanley CA, Shyng SL: A novel KCNJ11 mutation associated with congenital hyperinsulinism reduces the intrinsic open probability of beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channels. J Biol Chem. 2006 Feb 3;281(5):3006-12. Epub 2005 Dec 6. 16332676
  38. Suchi M, MacMullen CM, Thornton PS, Adzick NS, Ganguly A, Ruchelli ED, Stanley CA: Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses of the focal form of congenital hyperinsulinism. Mod Pathol. 2006 Jan;19(1):122-9. 16357843
  39. Stanik J, Gasperikova D, Paskova M, Barak L, Javorkova J, Jancova E, Ciljakova M, Hlava P, Michalek J, Flanagan SE, Pearson E, Hattersley AT, Ellard S, Klimes I: Prevalence of permanent neonatal diabetes in Slovakia and successful replacement of insulin with sulfonylurea therapy in KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutation carriers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Apr;92(4):1276-82. Epub 2007 Jan 9. 17213273