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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:57:54 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:20:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0002
Identification
Common NameLead
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionLead is a soft and malleable heavy and post-transition metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air. It is the heaviest non-radioactive elemen and has the highest atomic number of all of the stable elements. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, weights, as part of solders, pewters, fusible alloys, and as a radiation shield. It readily forms many lead salts and organo-lead compounds. Lead is one of the oldest known and most widely studied occupational and environmental toxins. Despite intensive study, there is still vigorous debate about the toxic effects of lead, both from low level exposure in the general population owing to environmental pollution and historic use of lead in paint and plumbing and from exposure in the occupational setting. The majority of industries historically associated with high lead exposure have made dramatic advances in their control of occupational exposure. However, cases of unacceptably high exposure and even of frank lead poisoning are still seen, predominantly in the demolition and tank cleaning industries. Nevertheless, in most industries blood lead levels have declined below levels at which signs or symptoms are seen and the current focus of attention is on the subclinical effects of exposure. The significance of some of these effects for the overt health of the workers is often the subject of debate. Inevitably there is pressure to reduce lead exposure in the general population and in working environments, but any legislation must be based on a genuine scientific evaluation of the available evidence. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Inorganic lead is undoubtedly one of the oldest occupational toxins and evidence of lead poisoning can be found dating back to Roman times. As industrial lead production started at least 5000 years ago, it is likely that outbreaks of lead poisoning occurred from this time. These episodes of poisoning were not limited to lead workers. The general population could be significantly exposed owing to poorly glazed ceramic ware, the use of lead solder in the food canning industry, high levels of lead in drinking water, the use of lead compounds in paint and cosmetics and by deposition on crops and dust from industrial and motor vehicle sources. It was an important cause of morbidity and mortality during the Industrial Revolution and effective formal control of lead workers did not occur until the pioneering occupational health work of Ronald Lane in 1949. At very high blood lead levels, lead is a powerful abortifacient. At lower levels, it has been associated with miscarriages and low birth weights of infants. Predominantly to protect the developing fetus, legislation for lead workers often includes lower exposure criteria for women of reproductive capacity. Studies have shown a slowing of sensory motor reaction time in male lead workers and some disturbance of cognitive function in workers with blood lead levels >40 ug/100 ml. Peripheral motor neuropathy is seen as a result of chronic high-level lead exposure, but there is conflicting, although on the whole convincing, evidence of a reduction in peripheral nerve conduction velocity at lower blood lead levels. The threshold has been suggested to be as low as 30 ug/100 ml, although other studies have not seen effects below a blood lead level of 70 ug/100 ml. Several large epidemiological studies of lead workers have found inconclusive evidence of an association between lead exposure and the incidence of cancer. However, based on closer analysis, the increase did not appear to be related to lead exposure. There was also a small but significant increase in the incidence of lung cancer, but this could have been the result of confounding from cigarette smoking or concurrent arsenic exposure. There is some evidence in humans that there is an association between low-level lead exposure and blood pressure, but the results are inconsistent. Lead appears to reduce the resistance and increase the mortality of experimental animals. It apparently impairs antibody production and decreases immunoglobulin plaque forming cells. There is some evidence for suggesting that workers with blood lead levels between 20 and 85 ug/100 ml may have an increased susceptibility to colds, but a study of lead workers with blood lead levels less than 50 ug/100 ml showed no significant immunological changes. Although it is widely accepted that personal hygiene is the most important determinant of an individual's blood lead level, recent interesting information has shown that certain genetic polymorphisms may also have an impact. The use of most of lead containing chemicals is declining with the gradual demise of the use of lead in gasoline (petrol), but lead naphthenates and lead stearates are still used in stabilizers for plastics and as lead 'soaps'. In fact, the only compound now produced for gasoline/fuel usage is tetraethyl lead. Exposure is only seen during the production, transportation and blending of this substance into gasoline/fuel/petrol and in workers involved in cleaning storage tanks that have contained leaded gasoline (or petrol). It is in this final group, the tank cleaners, where the highest potential morbidity and mortality may be seen. (6).
Compound Type
  • Cigarette Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Lead Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Pollutant
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Lead (II) cation
Lead ion
Lead ion (Pb2+)
Lead(2+)
Lead(2+) ion
Lead(II)
Pb
Pb(2+)
Pb2+
Plumbum
Chemical FormulaPb
Average Molecular Mass207.200 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass207.976 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7439-92-1
IUPAC Nameλ²-lead(2+) ion
Traditional Nameλ²-lead(2+) ion
SMILES[Pb++]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Pb/q+2
InChI KeyInChIKey=RVPVRDXYQKGNMQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous post-transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a post-transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous post-transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous post-transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous post-transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceBluish-white metallic solid, turns grey when exposed to air.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point327.5°C
Boiling Point1740 °C
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.03ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-123b547ace2c14730ca1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-123b547ace2c14730ca1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-123b547ace2c14730ca1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-5199439513f6f28b5c21View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-5199439513f6f28b5c21View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-0090000000-5199439513f6f28b5c21View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (12) ; inhalation (12) ; dermal (12)
Mechanism of ToxicityLead mimics other biologically important metals, such as zinc, calcium, and iron, competing as cofactors for many of their respective enzymatic reactions. For example, lead has been shown to competitively inhibit calcium's binding of calmodulin, interferring with neurotransmitter release. It exhibits similar competitive inhibition at the NMDA receptor and protein kinase C, which impairs brain microvascular formation and function, as well as alters the blood-brain barrier. Lead also affects the nervous system by impairing regulation of dopamine synthesis and blocking evoked release of acetylcholine. However, it's main mechanism of action occurs by inhibiting delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, an enzyme vital in the biosynthesis of heme, which is a necesssary cofactor of hemoglobin. (7, 2, 4, 12)
MetabolismLead is absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. It is then distributed mainly to the bones and red blood cells. In the blood lead may be found bound to serum albumin or the metal-binding protein metallothionein. Organic lead is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes, whereas inorganic lead forms complexes with delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Lead is excreted mainly in the urine and faeces. (12)
Toxicity ValuesAt blood lead levels between 25 and 60 μg/dL, neuropsychiatric effects such as delayed reaction times, irritability, and difficulty concentrating, as well as slowed motor nerve conduction and headache can occur. Anemia may appear at blood lead levels higher than 50 μg/dL. In adults, Abdominal colic, involving paroxysms of pain, may appear at blood lead levels greater than 80 μg/dL.
Lethal Dose714 mg/kg of lead acetate (i.e., about 450 mg/kg of lead) is the lethal oral dose. An oral dose of 450 mg Pb/kg is equivalent to a 70-kg worker being exposed to 21,000 mg Pb/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 L/minute and 100% absorption.
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (11)
Uses/SourcesLead is used extensively in building construction and can also be found in batteries, ammunition, non-Western cosmetics, solder, and pipes. Old paints and ceramic products may also contain lead, though recent legislation has banned its use. (12)
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Inhalation: 0.05 mg/m3 (10)
Health EffectsLead is a neurotoxin and has been known to cause brain damage and reduced cognitive capacity, especially in children. Lead exposure can result in nephropathy, as well as blood disorders such as high blood pressure and anemia. Lead also exhibits reproductive toxicity and can results in miscarriages and reduced sperm production. (9)
SymptomsSymptoms of chronic lead poisoning include reduced cognitive abilities, nausea, abdominal pain, irritability, insomnia, metal taste in the mouth, excess lethargy or hyperactivity, chest pain, headache and, in extreme cases, seizures, comas, and death. There are also associated gastrointestinal problems, such as constipation, diarrhea, vomiting, poor appetite, weight loss, which are common in acute poisoning. (1, 9)
TreatmentLead poisoning is usually treated with chelation therapy using DMSA, EDTA, or dimercaprol. (9)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB04628
PubChem Compound ID73212
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID65967
KEGG IDC06696
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID150500
ChEBI ID49807
BioCyc IDCPD-527
CTD IDD007854
Stitch IDLead
PDB IDPB
ACToR ID6472
Wikipedia LinkLead
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Needleman HL, Schell A, Bellinger D, Leviton A, Allred EN: The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood. An 11-year follow-up report. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jan 11;322(2):83-8. [2294437 ]
  2. Gill KD, Gupta V, Sandhir R: Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated neurotransmitter release and neurobehavioural deficits following lead exposure. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003 Dec;21(4):345-53. [14624473 ]
  3. Smith DR, Kahng MW, Quintanilla-Vega B, Fowler BA: High-affinity renal lead-binding proteins in environmentally-exposed humans. Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Aug 14;115(1):39-52. [9817074 ]
  4. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Guilarte TR: Divalent cations modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function at the glycine site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1356-62. [10454514 ]
  5. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
  6. Gidlow DA: Lead toxicity. Occup Med (Lond). 2004 Mar;54(2):76-81. [15020724 ]
  7. Ellenhorn MJ and Barceloux DG (1988). Diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning. Medical Toxicology. New York, New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc.
  8. Takahashi A [1975]. Problems of hygiene maintenance for food coming into contact with rubber and plastics products. Nippon Gomu Kyokaishi 48(9):537 [Translated by Inglis EA [1976]. Int Polymer Sci Tech 3(1):T/93-T/105.]
  9. Wikipedia. Lead poisoning. Last Updated 3 March 2009. [Link]
  10. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  11. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  12. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Protein dimerization activity
Specific Function:
Binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and may function as an intracellular carrier of acyl-CoA esters. It is also able to displace diazepam from the benzodiazepine (BZD) recognition site located on the GABA type A receptor. It is therefore possible that this protein also acts as a neuropeptide to modulate the action of the GABA receptor.
Gene Name:
DBI
Uniprot ID:
P07108
Molecular Weight:
10044.37 Da
References
  1. Smith DR, Kahng MW, Quintanilla-Vega B, Fowler BA: High-affinity renal lead-binding proteins in environmentally-exposed humans. Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Aug 14;115(1):39-52. [9817074 ]
General Function:
Titin binding
Specific Function:
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels, aquaporins and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CCP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis.
Gene Name:
CALM1
Uniprot ID:
P0DP23
Molecular Weight:
16837.47 Da
References
  1. Gill KD, Gupta V, Sandhir R: Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated neurotransmitter release and neurobehavioural deficits following lead exposure. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003 Dec;21(4):345-53. [14624473 ]
General Function:
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iron transport across the cell membrane. Provides Cu(2+) ions for the ascorbate-mediated deaminase degradation of the heparan sulfate chains of GPC1. May also play a role in fetal lung development or pulmonary antioxidant defense (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CP
Uniprot ID:
P00450
Molecular Weight:
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Leelakunakorn W, Sriworawit R, Soontaros S: Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity as a biomarker of lead exposure. J Occup Health. 2005 Jan;47(1):56-60. [15703452 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes an early step in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles. Binds two molecules of 5-aminolevulinate per subunit, each at a distinct site, and catalyzes their condensation to form porphobilinogen.
Gene Name:
ALAD
Uniprot ID:
P13716
Molecular Weight:
36294.485 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Lead poisoning. Last Updated 3 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Iron-responsive element binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX.
Gene Name:
FECH
Uniprot ID:
P22830
Molecular Weight:
47861.77 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Lead poisoning. Last Updated 3 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN1
Uniprot ID:
Q05586
Molecular Weight:
105371.945 Da
References
  1. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Guilarte TR: Divalent cations modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function at the glycine site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1356-62. [10454514 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits.
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular Weight:
165281.215 Da
References
  1. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Guilarte TR: Divalent cations modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function at the glycine site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1356-62. [10454514 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. In concert with DAPK1 at extrasynaptic sites, acts as a central mediator for stroke damage. Its phosphorylation at Ser-1303 by DAPK1 enhances synaptic NMDA receptor channel activity inducing injurious Ca2+ influx through them, resulting in an irreversible neuronal death (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID:
Q13224
Molecular Weight:
166365.885 Da
References
  1. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Guilarte TR: Divalent cations modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function at the glycine site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1356-62. [10454514 ]
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN2C
Uniprot ID:
Q14957
Molecular Weight:
134207.77 Da
References
  1. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Guilarte TR: Divalent cations modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function at the glycine site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1356-62. [10454514 ]
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN2D
Uniprot ID:
O15399
Molecular Weight:
143750.685 Da
References
  1. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Guilarte TR: Divalent cations modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function at the glycine site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1356-62. [10454514 ]
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Guilarte TR: Divalent cations modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function at the glycine site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1356-62. [10454514 ]
General Function:
Nmda glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.
Gene Name:
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID:
O60391
Molecular Weight:
112990.98 Da
References
  1. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Guilarte TR: Divalent cations modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function at the glycine site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1356-62. [10454514 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and adhesion, tumorigenesis, cardiac hypertrophy, angiogenesis, platelet function and inflammation, by directly phosphorylating targets such as RAF1, BCL2, CSPG4, TNNT2/CTNT, or activating signaling cascade involving MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and RAP1GAP. Involved in cell proliferation and cell growth arrest by positive and negative regulation of the cell cycle. Can promote cell growth by phosphorylating and activating RAF1, which mediates the activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, and/or by up-regulating CDKN1A, which facilitates active cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complex formation in glioma cells. In intestinal cells stimulated by the phorbol ester PMA, can trigger a cell cycle arrest program which is associated with the accumulation of the hyper-phosphorylated growth-suppressive form of RB1 and induction of the CDK inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN1B. Exhibits anti-apoptotic function in glioma cells and protects them from apoptosis by suppressing the p53/TP53-mediated activation of IGFBP3, and in leukemia cells mediates anti-apoptotic action by phosphorylating BCL2. During macrophage differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1), is translocated to the nucleus and is associated with macrophage development. After wounding, translocates from focal contacts to lamellipodia and participates in the modulation of desmosomal adhesion. Plays a role in cell motility by phosphorylating CSPG4, which induces association of CSPG4 with extensive lamellipodia at the cell periphery and polarization of the cell accompanied by increases in cell motility. Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells where it can act as a tumor promoter and is implicated in malignant phenotypes of several tumors such as gliomas and breast cancers. Negatively regulates myocardial contractility and positively regulates angiogenesis, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in arteries. Mediates hypertrophic growth of neonatal cardiomyocytes, in part through a MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2)-dependent signaling pathway, and upon PMA treatment, is required to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy up to heart failure and death, by increasing protein synthesis, protein-DNA ratio and cell surface area. Regulates cardiomyocyte function by phosphorylating cardiac troponin T (TNNT2/CTNT), which induces significant reduction in actomyosin ATPase activity, myofilament calcium sensitivity and myocardial contractility. In angiogenesis, is required for full endothelial cell migration, adhesion to vitronectin (VTN), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-dependent regulation of kinase activation and vascular tube formation. Involved in the stabilization of VEGFA mRNA at post-transcriptional level and mediates VEGFA-induced cell proliferation. In the regulation of calcium-induced platelet aggregation, mediates signals from the CD36/GP4 receptor for granule release, and activates the integrin heterodimer ITGA2B-ITGB3 through the RAP1GAP pathway for adhesion. During response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), may regulate selective LPS-induced macrophage functions involved in host defense and inflammation. But in some inflammatory responses, may negatively regulate NF-kappa-B-induced genes, through IL1A-dependent induction of NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA/IKBA). Upon stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phosphorylates EIF4G1, which modulates EIF4G1 binding to MKNK1 and may be involved in the regulation of EIF4E phosphorylation. Phosphorylates KIT, leading to inhibition of KIT activity. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.
Gene Name:
PRKCA
Uniprot ID:
P17252
Molecular Weight:
76749.445 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcription regulation, insulin signaling and endothelial cells proliferation. Plays a key role in B-cell activation by regulating BCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11/CARMA1 at 'Ser-559', 'Ser-644' and 'Ser-652'. Phosphorylation induces CARD11/CARMA1 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex as well as MAP3K7/TAK1, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. Plays a direct role in the negative feedback regulation of the BCR signaling, by down-modulating BTK function via direct phosphorylation of BTK at 'Ser-180', which results in the alteration of BTK plasma membrane localization and in turn inhibition of BTK activity. Involved in apoptosis following oxidative damage: in case of oxidative conditions, specifically phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of isoform p66Shc of SHC1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of p66Shc, where p66Shc acts as a reactive oxygen species producer. Acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor (ANDR)-dependent transcription, by being recruited to ANDR target genes and specifically mediating phosphorylation of 'Thr-6' of histone H3 (H3T6ph), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of histone H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. In insulin signaling, may function downstream of IRS1 in muscle cells and mediate insulin-dependent DNA synthesis through the RAF1-MAPK/ERK signaling cascade. May participate in the regulation of glucose transport in adipocytes by negatively modulating the insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4. Under high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells, is probably involved in the inhibition of the insulin gene transcription, via regulation of MYC expression. In endothelial cells, activation of PRKCB induces increased phosphorylation of RB1, increased VEGFA-induced cell proliferation, and inhibits PI3K/AKT-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS3/eNOS) regulation by insulin, which causes endothelial dysfunction. Also involved in triglyceride homeostasis (By similarity). Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes cooperation between ATF2 and JUN, activating transcription.
Gene Name:
PRKCB
Uniprot ID:
P05771
Molecular Weight:
76868.45 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays contrasting roles in cell death and cell survival by functioning as a pro-apoptotic protein during DNA damage-induced apoptosis, but acting as an anti-apoptotic protein during cytokine receptor-initiated cell death, is involved in tumor suppression as well as survival of several cancers, is required for oxygen radical production by NADPH oxidase and acts as positive or negative regulator in platelet functional responses. Negatively regulates B cell proliferation and also has an important function in self-antigen induced B cell tolerance induction. Upon DNA damage, activates the promoter of the death-promoting transcription factor BCLAF1/Btf to trigger BCLAF1-mediated p53/TP53 gene transcription and apoptosis. In response to oxidative stress, interact with and activate CHUK/IKKA in the nucleus, causing the phosphorylation of p53/TP53. In the case of ER stress or DNA damage-induced apoptosis, can form a complex with the tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 which trigger apoptosis independently of p53/TP53. In cytosol can trigger apoptosis by activating MAPK11 or MAPK14, inhibiting AKT1 and decreasing the level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), whereas in nucleus induces apoptosis via the activation of MAPK8 or MAPK9. Upon ionizing radiation treatment, is required for the activation of the apoptosis regulators BAX and BAK, which trigger the mitochondrial cell death pathway. Can phosphorylate MCL1 and target it for degradation which is sufficient to trigger for BAX activation and apoptosis. Is required for the control of cell cycle progression both at G1/S and G2/M phases. Mediates phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression at G1/S phase by up-regulating the CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 and inhibiting the cyclin CCNA2 promoter activity. In response to UV irradiation can phosphorylate CDK1, which is important for the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint activation. Can protect glioma cells from the apoptosis induced by TNFSF10/TRAIL, probably by inducing increased phosphorylation and subsequent activation of AKT1. Is highly expressed in a number of cancer cells and promotes cell survival and resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs by inducing cyclin D1 (CCND1) and hyperphosphorylation of RB1, and via several pro-survival pathways, including NF-kappa-B, AKT1 and MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2). Can also act as tumor suppressor upon mitogenic stimulation with PMA or TPA. In N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-treated cells, is required for NCF1 (p47-phox) phosphorylation and activation of NADPH oxidase activity, and regulates TNF-elicited superoxide anion production in neutrophils, by direct phosphorylation and activation of NCF1 or indirectly through MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. May also play a role in the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in eosinophil after stimulation with IL5, leukotriene B4 or PMA. In collagen-induced platelet aggregation, acts a negative regulator of filopodia formation and actin polymerization by interacting with and negatively regulating VASP phosphorylation. Downstream of PAR1, PAR4 and CD36/GP4 receptors, regulates differentially platelet dense granule secretion; acts as a positive regulator in PAR-mediated granule secretion, whereas it negatively regulates CD36/GP4-mediated granule release. Phosphorylates MUC1 in the C-terminal and regulates the interaction between MUC1 and beta-catenin. The catalytic subunit phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins (YWHAB, YWHAZ and YWHAH) in a sphingosine-dependent fashion (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRKCD
Uniprot ID:
Q05655
Molecular Weight:
77504.445 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays essential roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes linked to cytoskeletal proteins, such as cell adhesion, motility, migration and cell cycle, functions in neuron growth and ion channel regulation, and is involved in immune response, cancer cell invasion and regulation of apoptosis. Mediates cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix via integrin-dependent signaling, by mediating angiotensin-2-induced activation of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) in cardiac fibroblasts. Phosphorylates MARCKS, which phosphorylates and activates PTK2/FAK, leading to the spread of cardiomyocytes. Involved in the control of the directional transport of ITGB1 in mesenchymal cells by phosphorylating vimentin (VIM), an intermediate filament (IF) protein. In epithelial cells, associates with and phosphorylates keratin-8 (KRT8), which induces targeting of desmoplakin at desmosomes and regulates cell-cell contact. Phosphorylates IQGAP1, which binds to CDC42, mediating epithelial cell-cell detachment prior to migration. In HeLa cells, contributes to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell migration, and in human corneal epithelial cells, plays a critical role in wound healing after activation by HGF. During cytokinesis, forms a complex with YWHAB, which is crucial for daughter cell separation, and facilitates abscission by a mechanism which may implicate the regulation of RHOA. In cardiac myocytes, regulates myofilament function and excitation coupling at the Z-lines, where it is indirectly associated with F-actin via interaction with COPB1. During endothelin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, mediates activation of PTK2/FAK, which is critical for cardiomyocyte survival and regulation of sarcomere length. Plays a role in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy via persistent phosphorylation of troponin I (TNNI3). Involved in nerve growth factor (NFG)-induced neurite outgrowth and neuron morphological change independently of its kinase activity, by inhibition of RHOA pathway, activation of CDC42 and cytoskeletal rearrangement. May be involved in presynaptic facilitation by mediating phorbol ester-induced synaptic potentiation. Phosphorylates gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 (GABRG2), which reduces the response of GABA receptors to ethanol and benzodiazepines and may mediate acute tolerance to the intoxicating effects of ethanol. Upon PMA treatment, phosphorylates the capsaicin- and heat-activated cation channel TRPV1, which is required for bradykinin-induced sensitization of the heat response in nociceptive neurons. Is able to form a complex with PDLIM5 and N-type calcium channel, and may enhance channel activities and potentiates fast synaptic transmission by phosphorylating the pore-forming alpha subunit CACNA1B (CaV2.2). In prostate cancer cells, interacts with and phosphorylates STAT3, which increases DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of STAT3 and seems to be essential for prostate cancer cell invasion. Downstream of TLR4, plays an important role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune response by phosphorylating and activating TICAM2/TRAM, which in turn activates the transcription factor IRF3 and subsequent cytokines production. In differentiating erythroid progenitors, is regulated by EPO and controls the protection against the TNFSF10/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, via BCL2. May be involved in the regulation of the insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of AKT1.
Gene Name:
PRKCE
Uniprot ID:
Q02156
Molecular Weight:
83673.2 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein kinase c activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation in keratinocytes and pre-B cell receptor, mediates regulation of epithelial tight junction integrity and foam cell formation, and is required for glioblastoma proliferation and apoptosis prevention in MCF-7 cells. In keratinocytes, binds and activates the tyrosine kinase FYN, which in turn blocks epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and leads to keratinocyte growth arrest and differentiation. Associates with the cyclin CCNE1-CDK2-CDKN1B complex and inhibits CDK2 kinase activity, leading to RB1 dephosphorylation and thereby G1 arrest in keratinocytes. In association with RALA activates actin depolymerization, which is necessary for keratinocyte differentiation. In the pre-B cell receptor signaling, functions downstream of BLNK by up-regulating IRF4, which in turn activates L chain gene rearrangement. Regulates epithelial tight junctions (TJs) by phosphorylating occludin (OCLN) on threonine residues, which is necessary for the assembly and maintenance of TJs. In association with PLD2 and via TLR4 signaling, is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RGS2 down-regulation and foam cell formation. Upon PMA stimulation, mediates glioblastoma cell proliferation by activating the mTOR pathway, the PI3K/AKT pathway and the ERK1-dependent phosphorylation of ELK1. Involved in the protection of glioblastoma cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis by preventing caspase-9 activation. In camptothecin-treated MCF-7 cells, regulates NF-kappa-B upstream signaling by activating IKBKB, and confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Promotes oncogenic functions of ATF2 in the nucleus while blocking its apoptotic function at mitochondria. Phosphorylates ATF2 which promotes its nuclear retention and transcriptional activity and negatively regulates its mitochondrial localization.
Gene Name:
PRKCH
Uniprot ID:
P24723
Molecular Weight:
77827.96 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays diverse roles in neuronal cells and eye tissues, such as regulation of the neuronal receptors GRIA4/GLUR4 and GRIN1/NMDAR1, modulation of receptors and neuronal functions related to sensitivity to opiates, pain and alcohol, mediation of synaptic function and cell survival after ischemia, and inhibition of gap junction activity after oxidative stress. Binds and phosphorylates GRIA4/GLUR4 glutamate receptor and regulates its function by increasing plasma membrane-associated GRIA4 expression. In primary cerebellar neurons treated with the agonist 3,5-dihyidroxyphenylglycine, functions downstream of the metabotropic glutamate receptor GRM5/MGLUR5 and phosphorylates GRIN1/NMDAR1 receptor which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. May be involved in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), but may be not necessary for the process of synaptic plasticity. May be involved in desensitization of mu-type opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation in the spinal cord, and may be critical for the development and/or maintenance of morphine-induced reinforcing effects in the limbic forebrain. May modulate the functionality of mu-type-opioid receptors by participating in a signaling pathway which leads to the phosphorylation and degradation of opioid receptors. May also contributes to chronic morphine-induced changes in nociceptive processing. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms and contributes to the maintenance of the allodynia pain produced by peripheral inflammation. Plays an important role in initial sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol, by mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol as well as the effects of this drug on the GABA(A) receptors. During and after cerebral ischemia modulate neurotransmission and cell survival in synaptic membranes, and is involved in insulin-induced inhibition of necrosis, an important mechanism for minimizing ischemic injury. Required for the elimination of multiple climbing fibers during innervation of Purkinje cells in developing cerebellum. Is activated in lens epithelial cells upon hydrogen peroxide treatment, and phosphorylates connexin-43 (GJA1/CX43), resulting in disassembly of GJA1 gap junction plaques and inhibition of gap junction activity which could provide a protective effect against oxidative stress (By similarity). Phosphorylates p53/TP53 and promotes p53/TP53-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Involved in the phase resetting of the cerebral cortex circadian clock during temporally restricted feeding. Stabilizes the core clock component ARNTL/BMAL1 by interfering with its ubiquitination, thus suppressing its degradation, resulting in phase resetting of the cerebral cortex clock (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PRKCG
Uniprot ID:
P05129
Molecular Weight:
78447.23 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium- and diacylglycerol-independent serine/ threonine-protein kinase that plays a general protective role against apoptotic stimuli, is involved in NF-kappa-B activation, cell survival, differentiation and polarity, and contributes to the regulation of microtubule dynamics in the early secretory pathway. Is necessary for BCR-ABL oncogene-mediated resistance to apoptotic drug in leukemia cells, protecting leukemia cells against drug-induced apoptosis. In cultured neurons, prevents amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by interrupting cell death process at a very early step. In glioblastoma cells, may function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) and PDPK1 in the promotion of cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic factor BAD. Can form a protein complex in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with PARD6A and ECT2 and regulate ECT2 oncogenic activity by phosphorylation, which in turn promotes transformed growth and invasion. In response to nerve growth factor (NGF), acts downstream of SRC to phosphorylate and activate IRAK1, allowing the subsequent activation of NF-kappa-B and neuronal cell survival. Functions in the organization of the apical domain in epithelial cells by phosphorylating EZR. This step is crucial for activation and normal distribution of EZR at the early stages of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. Forms a protein complex with LLGL1 and PARD6B independently of PARD3 to regulate epithelial cell polarity. Plays a role in microtubule dynamics in the early secretory pathway through interaction with RAB2A and GAPDH and recruitment to vesicular tubular clusters (VTCs). In human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), is activated by saturated fatty acids and mediates lipid-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
PRKCI
Uniprot ID:
P41743
Molecular Weight:
68261.855 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Ubiquitin-protein transferase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates non-redundant functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, including T-cells activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival, by mediating activation of multiple transcription factors such as NF-kappa-B, JUN, NFATC1 and NFATC2. In TCR-CD3/CD28-co-stimulated T-cells, is required for the activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN, which in turn are essential for IL2 production, and participates to the calcium-dependent NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11 on several serine residues, inducing CARD11 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. May also play an indirect role in activation of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B (NFKB2) pathway. In the signaling pathway leading to JUN activation, acts by phosphorylating the mediator STK39/SPAK and may not act through MAP kinases signaling. Plays a critical role in TCR/CD28-induced NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation by participating in the regulation of reduced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generation and intracellular calcium mobilization. After costimulation of T-cells through CD28 can phosphorylate CBLB and is required for the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of CBLB, which is a prerequisite for the activation of TCR. During T-cells differentiation, plays an important role in the development of T-helper 2 (Th2) cells following immune and inflammatory responses, and, in the development of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, is necessary for the activation of IL17-producing Th17 cells. May play a minor role in Th1 response. Upon TCR stimulation, mediates T-cell protective survival signal by phosphorylating BAD, thus protecting T-cells from BAD-induced apoptosis, and by up-regulating BCL-X(L)/BCL2L1 levels through NF-kappa-B and JUN pathways. In platelets, regulates signal transduction downstream of the ITGA2B, CD36/GP4, F2R/PAR1 and F2RL3/PAR4 receptors, playing a positive role in 'outside-in' signaling and granule secretion signal transduction. May relay signals from the activated ITGA2B receptor by regulating the uncoupling of WASP and WIPF1, thereby permitting the regulation of actin filament nucleation and branching activity of the Arp2/3 complex. May mediate inhibitory effects of free fatty acids on insulin signaling by phosphorylating IRS1, which in turn blocks IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Phosphorylates MSN (moesin) in the presence of phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidylinositol. Phosphorylates PDPK1 at 'Ser-504' and 'Ser-532' and negatively regulates its ability to phosphorylate PKB/AKT1.
Gene Name:
PRKCQ
Uniprot ID:
Q04759
Molecular Weight:
81864.145 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Calcium- and diacylglycerol-independent serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, and is involved in NF-kappa-B activation, mitogenic signaling, cell proliferation, cell polarity, inflammatory response and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in macrophages, or following mitogenic stimuli, functions downstream of PI3K to activate MAP2K1/MEK1-MAPK1/ERK2 signaling cascade independently of RAF1 activation. Required for insulin-dependent activation of AKT3, but may function as an adapter rather than a direct activator. Upon insulin treatment may act as a downstream effector of PI3K and contribute to the activation of translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 and subsequent glucose transport in adipocytes. In EGF-induced cells, binds and activates MAP2K5/MEK5-MAPK7/ERK5 independently of its kinase activity and can activate JUN promoter through MEF2C. Through binding with SQSTM1/p62, functions in interleukin-1 signaling and activation of NF-kappa-B with the specific adapters RIPK1 and TRAF6. Participates in TNF-dependent transactivation of NF-kappa-B by phosphorylating and activating IKBKB kinase, which in turn leads to the degradation of NF-kappa-B inhibitors. In migrating astrocytes, forms a cytoplasmic complex with PARD6A and is recruited by CDC42 to function in the establishment of cell polarity along with the microtubule motor and dynein. In association with FEZ1, stimulates neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. In the inflammatory response, is required for the T-helper 2 (Th2) differentiation process, including interleukin production, efficient activation of JAK1 and the subsequent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT6. May be involved in development of allergic airway inflammation (asthma), a process dependent on Th2 immune response. In the NF-kappa-B-mediated inflammatory response, can relieve SETD6-dependent repression of NF-kappa-B target genes by phosphorylating the RELA subunit at 'Ser-311'. Necessary and sufficient for LTP maintenance in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. In vein endothelial cells treated with the oxidant peroxynitrite, phosphorylates STK11 leading to nuclear export of STK11, subsequent inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling, and increased apoptosis. Phosphorylates VAMP2 in vitro (PubMed:17313651).
Gene Name:
PRKCZ
Uniprot ID:
Q05513
Molecular Weight:
67659.335 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function:
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from sites of absorption and heme degradation to those of storage and utilization. Serum transferrin may also have a further role in stimulating cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
TF
Uniprot ID:
P02787
Molecular Weight:
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Leelakunakorn W, Sriworawit R, Soontaros S: Ceruloplasmin oxidase activity as a biomarker of lead exposure. J Occup Health. 2005 Jan;47(1):56-60. [15703452 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.265 Da
References
  1. Rajanna B, Chetty CS, Stewart TC, Rajanna S: Effects of lead on pH and temperature-dependent substrate-activation kinetics of ATPase system and its protection by thiol compounds in rat brain. Biomed Environ Sci. 1991 Dec;4(4):441-51. [1664209 ]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the organization of the cytoskeleton (By similarity). Binds to and sequesters actin monomers (G actin) and therefore inhibits actin polymerization.Seraspenide inhibits the entry of hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells into the S-phase.
Gene Name:
TMSB4X
Uniprot ID:
P62328
Molecular Weight:
5052.625 Da
References
  1. Smith DR, Kahng MW, Quintanilla-Vega B, Fowler BA: High-affinity renal lead-binding proteins in environmentally-exposed humans. Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Aug 14;115(1):39-52. [9817074 ]