Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-03-06 11:57:54 -0700
Update Date2014-08-11 11:35:24 -0600
Accession NumberT3D0004
Identification
Common NameVinyl chloride
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionVinyl chloride is a man-made organic compound, formed when other substances such as trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene are broken down. In its monomer form it is acutely hazardous, thus it is primarily used for the production of polymers. At room temperature it is a flammable, colorless gas with a sweet odor, but it is easily condensed and usually stored as a liquid. It is one ingredient of cigarette.(5)
Compound Type
  • Organic Compound
  • Industrial Precursor/Intermediate
  • Organochloride
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-Chloroethylene
  2. Armodour
  3. Aron TS 700
  4. Atactic poly(vinyl chloride)
  5. Bakelite
  6. Boltaron
  7. Carina
  8. Chlorethene
  9. Chlorethylene
  10. vinyl chloride
  11. Chloroethene
  12. Chloroethylene
  13. Chloroethylene homopolymerise [french]
  14. Chlorure de vinyle [french]
  15. Cloroetileno
  16. Cloruro de vinilo
  17. Cloruro di vinile [italian]
  18. Corvic 55/9
  19. Dacovin
  20. Darvic 110
  21. Dynadur
  22. Ekavyl SD 2
  23. chloro-ethene homopolymer
  24. Ethylene monochloride
  25. chloro-ethylene,
  26. chloro-ethylene polymer
  27. Expanded polyvinyl chloride
  28. Flocor
  29. GEON 51
  30. Genotherm
  31. Halvic 223
  32. Hostalit
  33. Monochloroethene
  34. Monochloroethylene
  35. Monovinyl chloride
  36. Poly(vinyl chloride)
  37. Poly(vinyl chloride) carboxylated
  38. Poly(vinyl chloride-co-acrylic Acid)
  39. Polyvinyl chloride
  40. Polyvinyl chloride resin
  41. Polyvinylchloride
  42. Polyvinylchloride latex
  43. Resinite 90
  44. Trovidur
  45. Vinile (cloruro di) [italian]
  46. Vinyl c
  47. Vinyl c monomer
  48. Vinyl chloride
  49. Vinyl chloride monomer
  50. Vinyl chloride inhibited
  51. Vinyl chlorine
  52. Vinylchlorid [german]
  53. Vinylchloride
  54. Vinyle(chlorure de) [french]
  55. Winylu chlorek [polish]
  56. Chlorure de vinyle
  57. VC
  58. Vinylchlorid
Chemical FormulaC2H3Cl
Average Molecular Weight62.498 g/mol
CAS Registry Number75-01-4
Monoisotopic Mass61.992327803 g/mol
IUPAC Namechloroethene
Traditional IUPAC Namevinyl chloride
SMILESClC=C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C2H3Cl/c1-2-3/h2H,1H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=BZHJMEDXRYGGRV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen Compounds
ClassVinyl Halides
Sub ClassVinyl Chlorides
Direct ParentOrganochlorides
Alternative Parents
  • Chloroalkenes
  • Organochlorides
Substituents
  • organochloride
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compound
  • Chloroalkene
  • Vinyl Chloride
  • Haloalkene
External Descriptors
  • chloroethenes(ChEBI)
  • monohaloethene(ChEBI)
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
Biological Properties
StatusDetected but not Quantified
OriginNot Available
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
AppearanceColorless gas, usually stored as a liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-153.7 C
Boiling Point-13.37 °C
Solubility8.8 mg/mL at 25 °C [DELASSUS,PT & SCHMIDT,DD (1981)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility6.50e+00 g/lALOGPS
logP1.43ALOGPS
logP1.42ChemAxon
logS-0.98ALOGPS
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity14.78ChemAxon
polarizability5.56ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5) ; dermal (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityVinyl chloride poisoning exhibits many of the characteristics of autoimmune diseases. This is believed to be the result of a reactive vinyl chloride intermediate metabolite binding to an immunoglobulin, altering the protein and initiating an immune response. The metabolites of vinyl chloride, especially choloroethylene oxide, are mutagenic and act by covalently binding to DNA. This produces cyclic etheno-adducts, which cause base-pair transitions during transcription and DNA crosslinks. Metabolites also may cause oxidative stress and affecting tumor supressor genes, as vinyl chloride has been known to produce specific mutations in the p53 and Ki-ras genes. Vinyl chloride metabolites are also believed to exert toxic effects in the liver by covalently binding to liver proteins, resulting in cellular toxicity. (5, 1)
MetabolismVinyl chloride absorbed primarily via inhalation or ingestion is rapidly distributed throughout the body. It is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, first into chloroethylene oxide, then into chloroacetaldehyde, which are the main toxic metabolites. Chloroacetaldehyde is further converted into chloroethanol and monochloroacetic acid. Detoxification occurs in conjunction with glutathione, producing mainly thiodiglycolic acid, which is excreted in the urine. At high doses vinyl chloride may also be excreted by exhalation. (5, 2)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 500 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (3)
Lethal Dose120 000 ppm for an adult human. (4)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (7)
Uses/SourcesVinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC is used in a variety of plastic products, such as pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Small amounts of vinyl chloride is sometimes used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts. (5)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Inhalation: 0.5 ppm (6) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.03 ppm (6) Chronic Oral: 0.003 mg/kg/day (6)
Health EffectsExposure to vinyl chloride results in liver damage, nerve damage, and immune reactions, as well as depression of the central nervous system and cardiac arrhythmias. Long term exposure may result in damage to the sperm and testes of males. Vinyl chloride is also a known carcinogen. (5)
SymptomsSymptoms of acute vinyl chloride exposure include headache, nausea, dizziness, and drowsiness, possibly resulting in loss of conciousness, coma or cardiac arrhythmias at higher levels. Chronic exposure can lead to lung and kidney irritation, inhibition of bloodclotting, numbness and pain in the fingers, memory loss, and sleep disurbances. (5)
TreatmentVinyl chloride has no tested antidote. Poisoning is usually handled by preventing further exposure and treating the observed symptoms. (5)
Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6338
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDC06793
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28509
BioCyc ID11-DCE
CTD IDD014752
Stitch IDVinyl chloride
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID1466
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Marion MJ: Critical genes as early warning signs: example of vinyl chloride. Toxicol Lett. 1998 Dec 28;102-103:603-7. [10022320 ]
  2. ECETOC (1988). The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride: a historical review and assessment. Technical report no. 31, Brussels, ECETOC.
  3. US Environmental Protection Agency (2001). OHM/TADS: Oil and Hazardous Materials/Technical Assistance Data System. Washington, DC (Internet Version). Edition expires 2001. Greenwood Village, CO: Thomson Healthcare Inc.
  4. ILO (1998). Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th ed. Vol 1-4. (CD ROM Version). Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization.
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  7. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionReference

Targets

General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IGHG1
Uniprot ID:
P01857
Molecular weight:
36106.0
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General function:
Involved in antigen binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IGHG2
Uniprot ID:
P01859
Molecular weight:
35900.4
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P01860
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P01861
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
High affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Gene Name:
CSF2RB
Uniprot ID:
P32927
Molecular weight:
97336.0
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular weight:
100579.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51802.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular weight:
51340.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular weight:
55165.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular weight:
61641.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular weight:
52147.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular weight:
51035.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular weight:
54235.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular weight:
54607.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular weight:
54116.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular weight:
50707.8
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular weight:
57971.2
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular weight:
53594.5
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in benzodiazepine receptor activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular weight:
54161.8
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular weight:
54288.2
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular weight:
50639.7
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular weight:
55258.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular weight:
54150.4
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity)
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular weight:
54271.1
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular weight:
72020.9
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P20020
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q01814
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q16720
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P23634
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular weight:
110251.4
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform SERCA2A is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular weight:
114755.8
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular weight:
7283.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular weight:
112897.0
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular weight:
66217.0
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA- binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular weight:
59217.0
References
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