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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:57:54 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:20:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0006
Identification
Common NameBenzene
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBenzene is a toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon biproduct of coal distillation. Chronic benzene exposure produces hematotoxicity, bone marrow dysplasia (Displasia is a pre-neoplastic or pre-cancerous change). (1). It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Cigarette Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Gasoline Additive/Component
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial Precursor/Intermediate
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Solvent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Annulene
Aromatic alkane
Benzeen
Benzen
Benzin
Benzine
Benzinum
Benzol
Benzol 90
Benzole
Benzolene
Benzolo
Benzolum
Bicarburet of hydrogen
BNZ
Carbon oil
Coal naphtha
Cyclohexatriene
Fenzen
Mineral naphtha
Motor benzol
Phene
Phenyl hydride
Polystream
Pyrobenzol
Pyrobenzole
RNG
Chemical FormulaC6H6
Average Molecular Mass78.112 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass78.047 g/mol
CAS Registry Number71-43-2
IUPAC Namebenzene
Traditional Namebenzene
SMILESC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H6/c1-2-4-6-5-3-1/h1-6H
InChI KeyInChIKey=UHOVQNZJYSORNB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzene and substituted derivatives. These are aromatic compounds containing one monocyclic ring system consisting of benzene.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzene and substituted derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Bone Marrow
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Skin
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point5.5°C
Boiling Point80.1 °C
Solubility1.79 mg/mL at 25°C [MAY,WE et al. (1983)]
LogP2.13
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.11 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.03ALOGPS
logP1.97ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity26.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.89 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-004i-9000000000-c5901591488019f3ac5dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-004i-9000000000-70967112fec69784847cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-004i-9000000000-92ccc664b07cb6c56de9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0fb9-9000000000-2aae37aac9f2a02d5e8bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-004i-9100000000-11f8463e7c6286637b1bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-004i-9000000000-70967112fec69784847cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-004i-9000000000-92ccc664b07cb6c56de9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0fb9-9000000000-2aae37aac9f2a02d5e8bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-004i-9100000000-11f8463e7c6286637b1bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-70967112fec69784847cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-92ccc664b07cb6c56de9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HP 5970) , Positivesplash10-0fb9-9000000000-2aae37aac9f2a02d5e8bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (FINNIGAN-MAT 4500) , Positivesplash10-004i-9100000000-11f8463e7c6286637b1bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-45ac36cbb443a00d6a17View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-9cad19d98e6420c7b6a3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-2dace4807cb04a7942deView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b9df9bb9660e1fc49a7fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b9df9bb9660e1fc49a7fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b4ff542394722302be43View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004i-9000000000-08f396d6cb4660e57caaView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (24)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe toxic agents of benzene are its metabolites. Benzene is able increase its toxicity by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1, its main metabolic enzyme. Benzene's primary toxic effects are decreases in haematological cell counts and bone marrow cellularity. The decrease in blood cell count may be due to the binding of metabolites such as benzene oxide to the blood proteins albumin and haemoglobin. In the bone marrow, phenolic metabolites can be metabolized by bone marrow peroxidases to highly reactive semiquinone radicals and quinones that stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This and direct metabolite binding leads to damage to tubulin, histone proteins, and topoisomerase II. Some metabolites also exert mutagenic effects by inhibiting other DNA associated proteins, such as mitochondrial DNA polymerase and ribonucleotide reductase, as well as covalently binding to DNA itself, causing effects such as strand breakage, mitotic recombination, chromosome translocations, and aneuploidy. (24)
MetabolismBenzene is absorbed readily following inhalation or oral exposure. It enters the bloodstream and is rapidly distributed throughout the body, tending to accumulate in fatty tissues. Benzene is exhaled unchanged by the lungs, as well as metabolized in the liver to benzene oxide by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Benzene oxide is further converted into phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone, which are excreted in the urine as glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. (21)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 3306 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (23) LD50 340 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (23) LC50: 9980 ppm (Inhalation, Mouse) (23)
Lethal Dose50-500 mg/kg (oral) or 20 000 ppm (inhaled) for an adult human. (27)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (26)
Uses/SourcesBenzene is often used as an intermediate to make chemicals needed for the production of plastics, resins, and nylon and other synthetic fibers. It is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include emissions from volcanoes, forest fires, crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. (24)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Inhalation: 0.009 ppm (25) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.006 ppm (25) Chronic Inhalation: 0.003 ppm (25) Chronic Oral: 0.0005 mg/kg/day (25)
Health EffectsBenzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and also decreases blood cell counts, leading to blood disorders such as anemia. It can also cause excessive bleeding and affect the immune system, increasing the chance for infection. Benzene is also a known carcinogen, as chronic exposure to high levels has been shown to cause leukemia, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia. (24)
SymptomsBreathing benzene can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, and unconsciousness. Ingestion can result in vomiting, irritation of the stomach, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, and rapid heart rate. (24)
TreatmentThere is no known antidote for benzene and poisoning is first treated by preventing further exposure. If inhaled, respiratory assist may be necessary. If ingested, gastric lavage may be performed, or activated charcoal can be administered. (22)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB01505
PubChem Compound ID241
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL277500
ChemSpider ID236
KEGG IDC01407
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID111300
ChEBI ID16716
BioCyc IDBENZENE
CTD IDD001554
Stitch IDBenzene
PDB IDBNZ
ACToR ID136
Wikipedia Linkbenzene
References
Synthesis ReferenceCopisarow, Maurice; Long, Cyril N H. The Friedel-Crafts' reaction. II. Migration of halogen atoms in the benzene nucleus. Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions (1921), 119 442-7.
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Irons RD, Lv L, Gross SA, Ye X, Bao L, Wang XQ, Ryder J, Armstrong TW, Zhou Y, Miao L, Le AT, Kerzic PJ, Ni W, Fu H: Chronic exposure to benzene results in a unique form of dysplasia. Leuk Res. 2005 Dec;29(12):1371-80. Epub 2005 Sep 23. [16183116 ]
  2. Wiwanitkit V, Soogarun S, Suwansaksri J: Urine phenol and myeloperoxidase index: an observation in benzene exposed subjects. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004 Aug;45(8):1643-5. [15370219 ]
  3. Wang S, Chen H, Wang X: [Studies on relationship between exposure to low concentration of mixed benzene and lower quality of semen and very early fetal loss]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2000 Sep;34(5):271-3. [11372393 ]
  4. Zhang L, Wang Y, Shang N, Smith MT: Benzene metabolites induce the loss and long arm deletion of chromosomes 5 and 7 in human lymphocytes. Leuk Res. 1998 Feb;22(2):105-13. [9593466 ]
  5. Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, Morozzi G: Involvement of oxygen free radicals in the serum-mediated increase of benzoquinone genotoxicity. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005 Oct;46(3):156-63. [15920754 ]
  6. Turteltaub KW, Mani C: Benzene metabolism in rodents at doses relevant to human exposure from urban air. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2003 Feb;(113):1-26; discussion 27-35. [12675491 ]
  7. Irons RD, Stillman WS: Impact of benzene metabolites on differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1247-50. [9118900 ]
  8. Rothman N, Li GL, Dosemeci M, Bechtold WE, Marti GE, Wang YZ, Linet M, Xi LQ, Lu W, Smith MT, Titenko-Holland N, Zhang LP, Blot W, Yin SN, Hayes RB: Hematotoxicity among Chinese workers heavily exposed to benzene. Am J Ind Med. 1996 Mar;29(3):236-46. [8833776 ]
  9. Barbera N, Bulla G, Romano G: A fatal case of benzene poisoning. J Forensic Sci. 1998 Nov;43(6):1250-1. [9846407 ]
  10. Rolle-Kampczyk UE, Rehwagen M, Franck U, Weiss H, Krumbiegel P, Herbarth O: Bio-effect monitoring using a [(15)N]methacetin test as diagnostic tool to monitor remediation effects in an industrially polluted region. Toxicol Lett. 2006 Apr 10;162(2-3):234-8. Epub 2005 Oct 19. [16242870 ]
  11. Vermeulen R, Lan Q, Zhang L, Gunn L, McCarthy D, Woodbury RL, McGuire M, Podust VN, Li G, Chatterjee N, Mu R, Yin S, Rothman N, Smith MT: Decreased levels of CXC-chemokines in serum of benzene-exposed workers identified by array-based proteomics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22;102(47):17041-6. Epub 2005 Nov 14. [16286641 ]
  12. Mathews JM, De Costa KS: Absorption, metabolism, and disposition of 1,3-diphenyl-1-triazene in rats and mice after oral, i.v., and dermal administration. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Dec;27(12):1499-504. [10570033 ]
  13. Gut I, Nedelcheva V, Soucek P, Stopka P, Tichavska B: Cytochromes P450 in benzene metabolism and involvement of their metabolites and reactive oxygen species in toxicity. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1211-8. [9118895 ]
  14. Xiao G, Pan C, Cai Y, Lin H, Fu Z: Effect of benzene, toluene, xylene on the semen quality and the function of accessory gonad of exposed workers. Ind Health. 2001 Apr;39(2):206-10. [11341554 ]
  15. Dees C, Askari M, Henley D: Carcinogenic potential of benzene and toluene when evaluated using cyclin-dependent kinase activation and p53-DNA binding. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec;104 Suppl 6:1289-92. [9118908 ]
  16. Ward E, Hornung R, Morris J, Rinsky R, Wild D, Halperin W, Guthrie W: Risk of low red or white blood cell count related to estimated benzene exposure in a rubberworker cohort (1940-1975) Am J Ind Med. 1996 Mar;29(3):247-57. [8833777 ]
  17. Seaton MJ, Schlosser P, Medinsky MA: In vitro conjugation of benzene metabolites by human liver: potential influence of interindividual variability on benzene toxicity. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Jul;16(7):1519-27. [7614685 ]
  18. Brugnone F, Perbellini L, Romeo L, Cerpelloni M, Bianchin M, Tonello A: Benzene in blood as a biomarker of low level occupational exposure. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Sep 1;235(1-3):247-52. [10535123 ]
  19. Ress NB: NTP Technical Report on the metabolism, toxicity and predicted carcinogenicity of diazoaminobenzene (CAS No. 136-35-6). Toxic Rep Ser. 2002 Sep;(73):1-23, A1-C6. [12370695 ]
  20. Surralles J, Autio K, Nylund L, Jarventaus H, Norppa H, Veidebaum T, Sorsa M, Peltonen K: Molecular cytogenetic analysis of buccal cells and lymphocytes from benzene-exposed workers. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Apr;18(4):817-23. [9111220 ]
  21. Henderson RF, Sabourin PJ, Bechtold WE, Griffith WC, Medinsky MA, Birnbaum LS, Lucier GW. The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on tissue and blood level of benzene metabolites. Environ Health Perspect. 1989;82: 9-17.
  22. Rumack BH (2008). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 138, edition expires Nov, 2008.
  23. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  24. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  25. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  26. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  27. HSDB: Hazardous Substances Data Bank. National Library of Medicine (2001). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Transition metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1. Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.Beta-amyloid peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Beta-amyloid 42 is a more effective reductant than beta-amyloid 40. Beta-amyloid peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. Beta-APP42 may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with overexpressed HADH2 leads to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Also binds GPC1 in lipid rafts.Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain.The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).
Gene Name:
APP
Uniprot ID:
P05067
Molecular Weight:
86942.715 Da
References
  1. Lee KH, Shin BH, Shin KJ, Kim DJ, Yu J: A hybrid molecule that prohibits amyloid fibrils and alleviates neuronal toxicity induced by beta-amyloid (1-42). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Mar 25;328(4):816-23. [15707952 ]
2. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protease binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the replication of mitochondrial DNA. Associates with mitochondrial DNA.
Gene Name:
POLG
Uniprot ID:
P54098
Molecular Weight:
139561.06 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna-directed dna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial polymerase processivity subunit. Stimulates the polymerase and exonuclease activities, and increases the processivity of the enzyme. Binds to ss-DNA.
Gene Name:
POLG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHN1
Molecular Weight:
54910.67 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein kinase c binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
TOP2B
Uniprot ID:
Q02880
Molecular Weight:
183265.825 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Keratin-binding protein required for epithelial cell polarization. Involved in apical junction complex (AJC) assembly via its interaction with PARD3. Required for ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
FBF1
Uniprot ID:
Q8TES7
Molecular Weight:
125445.19 Da
References
  1. Bechtold WE, Willis JK, Sun JD, Griffith WC, Reddy TV: Biological markers of exposure to benzene: S-phenylcysteine in albumin. Carcinogenesis. 1992 Jul;13(7):1217-20. [1638689 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon growth hormone (GH) stimulation and could reveal an essential role of hepatic GR in the control of body growth. Involved in chromatin remodeling. May play a negative role in adipogenesis through the regulation of lipolytic and antilipogenic genes expression.
Gene Name:
NR3C1
Uniprot ID:
P04150
Molecular Weight:
85658.57 Da
References
  1. Clark RD, Ray NC, Blaney P, Crackett PH, Hurley C, Williams K, Dyke HJ, Clark DE, Lockey PM, Devos R, Wong M, White A, Belanoff JK: 2-Benzenesulfonyl-8a-benzyl-hexahydro-2H-isoquinolin-6-ones as selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Oct 15;17(20):5704-8. Epub 2007 Aug 19. [17822897 ]
General Function:
Peptide binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) that mediates the action of GnRH to stimulate the secretion of the gonadotropic hormones luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This receptor mediates its action by association with G-proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Isoform 2 may act as an inhibitor of GnRH-R signaling.
Gene Name:
GNRHR
Uniprot ID:
P30968
Molecular Weight:
37730.355 Da
References
  1. Bonger KM, van den Berg RJ, Knijnenburg AD, Heitman LH, Ijzerman AP, Oosterom J, Timmers CM, Overkleeft HS, van der Marel GA: Synthesis and evaluation of homodimeric GnRHR antagonists having a rigid bis-propargylated benzene core. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Apr 1;16(7):3744-58. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.01.054. Epub 2008 Feb 2. [18282756 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBD
Uniprot ID:
P02042
Molecular Weight:
16055.41 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The epsilon chain is a beta-type chain of early mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBE1
Uniprot ID:
P02100
Molecular Weight:
16202.71 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Gene Name:
HBG1
Uniprot ID:
P69891
Molecular Weight:
16140.37 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Specific Function:
Heme binding
Gene Name:
HBG2
Uniprot ID:
P69892
Molecular Weight:
16126.35 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBQ1
Uniprot ID:
P09105
Molecular Weight:
15507.575 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The zeta chain is an alpha-type chain of mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBZ
Uniprot ID:
P02008
Molecular Weight:
15636.845 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H3 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in CNS and peripheral nervous system. Signals through the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and displays high constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist). Agonist stimulation of isoform 3 neither modified adenylate cyclase activity nor induced intracellular calcium mobilization.
Gene Name:
HRH3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5N1
Molecular Weight:
48670.81 Da
References
  1. Peschke B, Bak S, Hohlweg R, Nielsen R, Viuff D, Rimvall K: Benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamides and benzo[b]furan-2-carboxamides are potent antagonists of the human H3-receptor. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jun 15;16(12):3162-5. Epub 2006 Apr 17. [16616493 ]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structures. The H1F0 histones are found in cells that are in terminal stages of differentiation or that have low rates of cell division.
Gene Name:
H1F0
Uniprot ID:
P07305
Molecular Weight:
20862.775 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Chromatin dna binding
Specific Function:
Histone H1 protein binds to linker DNA between nucleosomes forming the macromolecular structure known as the chromatin fiber. Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structured fibers. Acts also as a regulator of individual gene transcription through chromatin remodeling, nucleosome spacing and DNA methylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HIST1H1A
Uniprot ID:
Q02539
Molecular Weight:
21841.89 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Histone H1 protein binds to linker DNA between nucleosomes forming the macromolecular structure known as the chromatin fiber. Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structured fibers. Acts also as a regulator of individual gene transcription through chromatin remodeling, nucleosome spacing and DNA methylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HIST1H1C
Uniprot ID:
P16403
Molecular Weight:
21364.57 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Histone H1 protein binds to linker DNA between nucleosomes forming the macromolecular structure known as the chromatin fiber. Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structured fibers. Acts also as a regulator of individual gene transcription through chromatin remodeling, nucleosome spacing and DNA methylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HIST1H1D
Uniprot ID:
P16402
Molecular Weight:
22349.71 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Histone H1 protein binds to linker DNA between nucleosomes forming the macromolecular structure known as the chromatin fiber. Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structured fibers. Acts also as a regulator of individual gene transcription through chromatin remodeling, nucleosome spacing and DNA methylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HIST1H1E
Uniprot ID:
P10412
Molecular Weight:
21865.02 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Histone H1 protein binds to linker DNA between nucleosomes forming the macromolecular structure known as the chromatin fiber. Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structured fibers. Acts also as a regulator of individual gene transcription through chromatin remodeling, nucleosome spacing and DNA methylation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HIST1H1B
Uniprot ID:
P16401
Molecular Weight:
22579.945 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Nucleosomal dna binding
Specific Function:
May play a key role in the control of gene expression during oogenesis and early embryogenesis, presumably through the perturbation of chromatin structure. Essential for meiotic maturation of germinal vesicle-stage oocytes. The somatic type linker histone H1c is rapidly replaced by H1oo in a donor nucleus transplanted into an oocyte. The greater mobility of H1oo as compared to H1c may contribute to this rapid replacement and increased instability of the embryonic chromatin structure. The rapid replacement of H1c with H1oo may play an important role in nuclear remodeling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
H1FOO
Uniprot ID:
Q8IZA3
Molecular Weight:
35813.185 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structures.
Gene Name:
HIST1H1T
Uniprot ID:
P22492
Molecular Weight:
22018.82 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Histones H1 are necessary for the condensation of nucleosome chains into higher-order structures.
Gene Name:
H1FX
Uniprot ID:
Q92522
Molecular Weight:
22487.0 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Enzyme binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2AG
Uniprot ID:
P0C0S8
Molecular Weight:
14091.375 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2AA
Uniprot ID:
Q96QV6
Molecular Weight:
14233.39 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2AB
Uniprot ID:
P04908
Molecular Weight:
14135.385 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2AC
Uniprot ID:
Q93077
Molecular Weight:
14105.355 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2AD
Uniprot ID:
P20671
Molecular Weight:
14107.375 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2AH
Uniprot ID:
Q96KK5
Molecular Weight:
13906.145 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2AJ
Uniprot ID:
Q99878
Molecular Weight:
13936.175 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST2H2AA3
Uniprot ID:
Q6FI13
Molecular Weight:
14095.385 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST2H2AB
Uniprot ID:
Q8IUE6
Molecular Weight:
13995.205 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST2H2AC
Uniprot ID:
Q16777
Molecular Weight:
13988.26 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST3H2A
Uniprot ID:
Q7L7L0
Molecular Weight:
14121.355 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Atypical histone H2A which can replace conventional H2A in some nucleosomes and is associated with active transcription and mRNA processing (PubMed:22795134). Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability (PubMed:15257289, PubMed:16287874, PubMed:16957777, PubMed:17591702, PubMed:17726088, PubMed:18329190, PubMed:22795134). Nucleosomes containing this histone are less rigid and organize less DNA than canonical nucleosomes in vivo (PubMed:15257289, PubMed:16957777, PubMed:17591702, PubMed:24336483). They are enriched in actively transcribed genes and associate with the elongating form of RNA polymerase (PubMed:17591702, PubMed:24753410). They associate with spliceosome components and are required for mRNA splicing (PubMed:22795134).
Specific Function:
Dna binding
Gene Name:
H2AFB1
Uniprot ID:
P0C5Y9
Molecular Weight:
12697.21 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Atypical histone H2A which can replace conventional H2A in some nucleosomes and is associated with active transcription and mRNA processing. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. Nucleosomes containing this histone are less rigid and organize less DNA than canonical nucleosomes in vivo. They are enriched in actively transcribed genes and associate with the elongating form of RNA polymerase. They associate with spliceosome components and are required for mRNA splicing. May participate in spermatogenesis.
Gene Name:
H2AFB2
Uniprot ID:
P0C5Z0
Molecular Weight:
12713.25 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
H2AFJ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BTM1
Molecular Weight:
14019.3 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. May be involved in the formation of constitutive heterochromatin. May be required for chromosome segregation during cell division (By similarity).
Gene Name:
H2AFV
Uniprot ID:
Q71UI9
Molecular Weight:
13508.575 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Rna polymerase ii distal enhancer sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function:
Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. May be involved in the formation of constitutive heterochromatin. May be required for chromosome segregation during cell division.
Gene Name:
H2AFZ
Uniprot ID:
P0C0S5
Molecular Weight:
13552.635 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Histone binding
Specific Function:
Variant histone H2A which replaces conventional H2A in a subset of nucleosomes. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Required for checkpoint-mediated arrest of cell cycle progression in response to low doses of ionizing radiation and for efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) specifically when modified by C-terminal phosphorylation.
Gene Name:
H2AFX
Uniprot ID:
P16104
Molecular Weight:
15144.45 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Variant histone specifically required to direct the transformation of dissociating nucleosomes to protamine in male germ cells. Entirely replaces classical histone H2B prior nucleosome to protamine transition and probably acts as a nucleosome dissociating factor that creates a more dynamic chromatin, facilitating the large-scale exchange of histones. Also expressed maternally and is present in the female pronucleus, suggesting a similar role in protamine replacement by nucleosomes at fertilization (By similarity). Also found in fat cells, its function and the presence of post-translational modifications specific to such cells are still unclear. Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BA
Uniprot ID:
Q96A08
Molecular Weight:
14167.38 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BB
Uniprot ID:
P33778
Molecular Weight:
13950.075 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.Has broad antibacterial activity. May contribute to the formation of the functional antimicrobial barrier of the colonic epithelium, and to the bactericidal activity of amniotic fluid.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BC
Uniprot ID:
P62807
Molecular Weight:
13906.035 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BD
Uniprot ID:
P58876
Molecular Weight:
13936.065 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BH
Uniprot ID:
Q93079
Molecular Weight:
13892.005 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.Has broad antibacterial activity. May contribute to the formation of the functional antimicrobial barrier of the colonic epithelium, and to the bactericidal activity of amniotic fluid.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BJ
Uniprot ID:
P06899
Molecular Weight:
13904.055 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.Has broad antibacterial activity. May contribute to the formation of the functional antimicrobial barrier of the colonic epithelium, and to the bactericidal activity of amniotic fluid.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BK
Uniprot ID:
O60814
Molecular Weight:
13890.035 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BL
Uniprot ID:
Q99880
Molecular Weight:
13952.095 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BM
Uniprot ID:
Q99879
Molecular Weight:
13989.175 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BN
Uniprot ID:
Q99877
Molecular Weight:
13922.035 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H2BO
Uniprot ID:
P23527
Molecular Weight:
13906.025 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.Has broad antibacterial activity. May contribute to the formation of the functional antimicrobial barrier of the colonic epithelium, and to the bactericidal activity of amniotic fluid.
Gene Name:
HIST2H2BE
Uniprot ID:
Q16778
Molecular Weight:
13920.055 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST2H2BF
Uniprot ID:
Q5QNW6
Molecular Weight:
13920.065 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST3H2BB
Uniprot ID:
Q8N257
Molecular Weight:
13908.005 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
H2BFM
Uniprot ID:
P0C1H6
Molecular Weight:
17001.165 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.Has broad antibacterial activity. May contribute to the formation of the functional antimicrobial barrier of the colonic epithelium, and to the bactericidal activity of amniotic fluid.
Gene Name:
H2BFS
Uniprot ID:
P57053
Molecular Weight:
13944.085 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Atypical histone H2B. Nucleosomes containing it are structurally and dynamically indistinguishable from those containing conventional H2B. However, unlike conventional H2B, does not recruit chromosome condensation factors and does not participate in the assembly of mitotic chromosomes. May be important for telomere function.
Gene Name:
H2BFWT
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2G1
Molecular Weight:
19618.3 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Histone H3-like variant which exclusively replaces conventional H3 in the nucleosome core of centromeric chromatin at the inner plate of the kinetochore. Required for recruitment and assembly of kinetochore proteins, mitotic progression and chromosome segregation. May serve as an epigenetic mark that propagates centromere identity through replication and cell division. The CENPA-H4 heterotetramer can bind DNA by itself (in vitro).
Gene Name:
CENPA
Uniprot ID:
P49450
Molecular Weight:
15990.395 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Histone binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H3A
Uniprot ID:
P68431
Molecular Weight:
15403.925 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Histone binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST3H3
Uniprot ID:
Q16695
Molecular Weight:
15508.105 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Histone binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST2H3A
Uniprot ID:
Q71DI3
Molecular Weight:
15387.865 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Rna polymerase ii distal enhancer sequence-specific dna binding
Specific Function:
Variant histone H3 which replaces conventional H3 in a wide range of nucleosomes in active genes. Constitutes the predominant form of histone H3 in non-dividing cells and is incorporated into chromatin independently of DNA synthesis. Deposited at sites of nucleosomal displacement throughout transcribed genes, suggesting that it represents an epigenetic imprint of transcriptionally active chromatin. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
H3F3A
Uniprot ID:
P84243
Molecular Weight:
15327.745 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Nucleosomal dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling. Hominid-specific H3.5/H3F3C preferentially colocalizes with euchromatin, and it is associated with actively transcribed genes.
Gene Name:
H3F3C
Uniprot ID:
Q6NXT2
Molecular Weight:
15213.57 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein domain specific binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST1H4A
Uniprot ID:
P62805
Molecular Weight:
11367.3 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HIST1H4G
Uniprot ID:
Q99525
Molecular Weight:
11009.065 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST2H2BC
Uniprot ID:
Q6DN03
Molecular Weight:
21471.81 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Core component of nucleosome. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.
Gene Name:
HIST2H2BD
Uniprot ID:
Q6DRA6
Molecular Weight:
18017.875 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A6NKZ8
Molecular Weight:
Not Available
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q99867
Molecular Weight:
Not Available
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TUBA4B
Uniprot ID:
Q9H853
Molecular Weight:
27551.01 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor
Specific Function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides.
Gene Name:
RRM1
Uniprot ID:
P23921
Molecular Weight:
90069.375 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor
Specific Function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides. Inhibits Wnt signaling.
Gene Name:
RRM2
Uniprot ID:
P31350
Molecular Weight:
44877.25 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor
Specific Function:
Plays a pivotal role in cell survival by repairing damaged DNA in a p53/TP53-dependent manner. Supplies deoxyribonucleotides for DNA repair in cells arrested at G1 or G2. Contains an iron-tyrosyl free radical center required for catalysis. Forms an active ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) complex with RRM1 which is expressed both in resting and proliferating cells in response to DNA damage.
Gene Name:
RRM2B
Uniprot ID:
Q7LG56
Molecular Weight:
40736.11 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Dna binding
Specific Function:
Essential for normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. Required for proper cell restructuring and DNA condensation during the elongation phase of spermiogenesis. Involved in the histone-protamine transition of sperm chromatin and the subsequent production of functional sperm. Binds both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA, ATP and protamine-1 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
H1FNT
Uniprot ID:
Q75WM6
Molecular Weight:
28115.69 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBAL3
Uniprot ID:
A6NHL2
Molecular Weight:
49908.305 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Specific Function:
Gtp binding
Gene Name:
TUBA1A
Uniprot ID:
Q71U36
Molecular Weight:
50135.25 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA1B
Uniprot ID:
P68363
Molecular Weight:
50151.24 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQE3
Molecular Weight:
49894.93 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA3C
Uniprot ID:
Q13748
Molecular Weight:
49959.145 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBA3E
Uniprot ID:
Q6PEY2
Molecular Weight:
49858.135 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA4A
Uniprot ID:
P68366
Molecular Weight:
49923.995 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Specific Function:
Gtp binding
Gene Name:
TUBA8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY65
Molecular Weight:
50093.12 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB
Uniprot ID:
P07437
Molecular Weight:
49670.515 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB1
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4B7
Molecular Weight:
50326.56 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB2A
Uniprot ID:
Q13885
Molecular Weight:
49906.67 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity). TUBB2B is implicated in neuronal migration.
Gene Name:
TUBB2B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BVA1
Molecular Weight:
49952.76 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain. TUBB3 plays a critical role in proper axon guidance and mantainance.
Gene Name:
TUBB3
Uniprot ID:
Q13509
Molecular Weight:
50432.355 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB4A
Uniprot ID:
P04350
Molecular Weight:
49585.475 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB4B
Uniprot ID:
P68371
Molecular Weight:
49830.72 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB6
Uniprot ID:
Q9BUF5
Molecular Weight:
49856.785 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB8
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZCM7
Molecular Weight:
49775.655 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A6NNZ2
Molecular Weight:
49572.265 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
In the elongating spermatid it is associated with the manchette, a specialized microtubule system present during reshaping of the sperm head.
Gene Name:
TUBD1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UJT1
Molecular Weight:
51033.86 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TUBE1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UJT0
Molecular Weight:
52931.4 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. The gamma chain is found at microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) such as the spindle poles or the centrosome. Pericentriolar matrix component that regulates alpha/beta chain minus-end nucleation, centrosome duplication and spindle formation.
Gene Name:
TUBG1
Uniprot ID:
P23258
Molecular Weight:
51169.48 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. The gamma chain is found at microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) such as the spindle poles or the centrosome. Pericentriolar matrix component that regulates alpha/beta chain minus-end nucleation, centrosome duplication and spindle formation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NRH3
Molecular Weight:
51091.32 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for benzene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]