Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-03-06 11:57:55 -0700
Update Date2014-11-04 15:48:29 -0700
Accession NumberT3D0012
Identification
Common NameClofenotane
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionInsecticide. Clofenotane is a major component of commercial DDT (other names *Gespan*, *Gesarol*, *Geverol*, *Chlorophenotane*). Use banned or discouraged in many countries Clofenotane belongs to the family of Diphenylmethanes. These are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups[1]. (Reference: [1] Diphenylmethane: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diphenylmethane).
Compound Type
  • Cigarette Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,1'-(2,2,2-Trichloroethane-1,1-diyl)bis(4-chlorobenzene)
1,1'-(2,2,2-Trichloroethylidene)bis(4-chloro)-Benzene
1,1'-(2,2,2-Trichloroethylidene)bis(4-chlorobenzene)I
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)ethane
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-Ethane
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-Ethane
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane
1,1,1-Trichloro-2-2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
1,1,1-Trichlorobis(chlorophenyl)ethane
1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
1,1-Bis(p-Chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichIoroethane
1,1-Bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
1-Chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene
2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-Ethane
2,2,2-Trichlorobis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
2,2-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane
Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
Chlofenotan
Chlorophenothane
Chlorphenotane
DDT
Dicophane, BAN
Diphenyltrichloroethane
p,p'-DDT, BSI
Zeidane
Zerdane
Zithiol
Chemical FormulaC14H9Cl5
Average Molecular Mass354.486 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass351.915 g/mol
CAS Registry Number50-29-3
IUPAC Name1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene
Traditional Namedetox
SMILESClC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1)C(Cl)(Cl)Cl
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C14H9Cl5/c15-11-5-1-9(2-6-11)13(14(17,18)19)10-3-7-12(16)8-4-10/h1-8,13H
InChI KeyInChIKey=YVGGHNCTFXOJCH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
Sub ClassDiphenylmethanes
Direct ParentDiphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aryl Chloride
  • Organochloride
  • Alkyl Chloride
  • Aromatic Homomonocyclic Compound
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl Halide
  • Organohalogen Compound
  • Alkyl Halide
  • Diphenylmethane
Molecular FrameworkAromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
External Descriptors
  • Organochlorine Insecticide (ChEBI)
  • Benzenoid Aromatic Compound (ChEBI)
  • Chlorophenylethane (ChEBI)
  • Organochlorine Pesticides (KEGG)
  • Organochlorine Insecticides (KEGG)
  • An Insecticide (MetaCyc)
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point108.5 - 109°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility5.5e-06 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP6.91
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.52e-06ALOGPS
logP6.29ALOGPS
logP6.46ChemAxon
logS-8ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity85.32 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.28 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS1D NMR
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityDDT toxicity occurs via at least four mechanisms, possibly all functioning simultaneously. DDT reduces potassium transport across the membrane. DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. DDT inhibits neuronal adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), particularly Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase which play vital roles in neuronal repolarization. DDT also inhibits the ability of calmodulin, a calcium mediator in nerves, to transport calcium ions that are essential for the release of neurotransmitters. All these inhibited functions reduce the rate of depolarization and increase the sensitivity of neurons to small stimuli that would not elicit a response in a fully depolarized neuron. DDT is also believed to adversely affect the reproductive system by mimicking endogenous hormones and binding to the estrogen and adrogen receptors. (1, 4)
MetabolismDDT is absorbed in the stomach and intestine, after which it enters the lymphatic system and is carried throughout the body and incorporated into fatty tissues. Metabolism of DDT occurs mainly via cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the liver and kidney, where it undergoes reductive dechlorination to DDD (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene). These compounds are further degraded into additional metabolites, mainly DDA (bis(p-chlorophenyl) acetic acid), which are excreted in the urine. (4)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 87 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (8) LD50: 1931 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) (8) LD50: 1500 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Rat) (8)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (6)
Uses/SourcesDDT is used as a pesticide and in disease vector control. (3)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Oral: 0.0005 mg/kg/day (5) Intermediate Oral: 0.0005 mg/kg/day (5)
Health EffectsExposure to DDT causes loss of weight and anorexia. DDT poisoning affects CNS function in humans, but pathologic changes are observed in the liver and reproductive organs. Hypertrophy of hepatocytes and subcellular organelles such as mitochondria, proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, centrolobular necrosis after exposure to high concentrations, and an increase in the incidence of hepatic tumors have been noted. (1)
SymptomsAcute signs of DDT poisoning include paresthesia after oral ingestion. Studies have shown that a mammal poisoned with DDT-type agents displays periodic persistent tremoring and/or convulsive seizures that are suggestive of repetitive discharges in neurons. These repetitive tremors and seizures can be initiated by tactile and auditory stimuli. (1)
TreatmentTreatment of DDT exposure should be primarily directed towards decontamination and supportive care, as there is no specific antidote. The use of gastric lavage and activated charcoal for large ingestions may be effective. (7)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB32127
PubChem Compound ID3036
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL416898
ChemSpider ID2928
KEGG IDC04623
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16130
BioCyc IDCPD-1125
CTD IDD003634
Stitch IDDDT, P,P'-
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID381
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  2. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  3. Wikipedia. DDT. Last Updated 2 April 2009. [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for DDT, DDE, and DDD. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  7. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Poison Information Monograph for DDT. [Link]
  8. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2005). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for DDT. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Orphan receptor; its natural ligand is probably pregnane. Binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes promoter. Activates its expression in response to a wide variety of endobiotics and xenobiotics
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49762.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.93 uMATG_PXR_TRANSAttagene
AC505.80 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Kretschmer XC, Baldwin WS: CAR and PXR: xenosensors of endocrine disrupters? Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Aug 15;155(3):111-28. [16054614 ]
  2. Kanno Y, Inouye Y: A consecutive three alanine residue insertion mutant of human CAR: a novel CAR ligand screening system in HepG2 cells. J Toxicol Sci. 2010 Aug;35(4):515-25. [20686338 ]
  3. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66217.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.59 uMOT_ERa_EREGFP_0120Odyssey Thera
AC503.48 uMOT_ERa_EREGFP_0480Odyssey Thera
AC504.28 uMTox21_ERa_LUC_BG1_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Kojima H, Iida M, Katsura E, Kanetoshi A, Hori Y, Kobayashi K: Effects of a diphenyl ether-type herbicide, chlornitrofen, and its amino derivative on androgen and estrogen receptor activities. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):497-502. [12676605 ]
  3. Fujimoto N, Kitamura S: Effects of environmental estrogenic chemicals on AP1 mediated transcription with estrogen receptors alpha and beta. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Jan;88(1):53-9. [15026083 ]
  4. Lemaire G, Mnif W, Mauvais P, Balaguer P, Rahmani R: Activation of alpha- and beta-estrogen receptors by persistent pesticides in reporter cell lines. Life Sci. 2006 Aug 15;79(12):1160-9. Epub 2006 Mar 27. [16626760 ]
  5. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
  6. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98990.0 Da
References
  1. Sonneveld E, Jansen HJ, Riteco JA, Brouwer A, van der Burg B: Development of androgen- and estrogen-responsive bioassays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays. Toxicol Sci. 2005 Jan;83(1):136-48. Epub 2004 Oct 13. [15483189 ]
  2. Maness SC, McDonnell DP, Gaido KW: Inhibition of androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional activity by DDT isomers and methoxychlor in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 Jul;151(1):135-42. [9705896 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for DDT, DDE, and DDD. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA- binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59217.0 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Lemaire G, Mnif W, Mauvais P, Balaguer P, Rahmani R: Activation of alpha- and beta-estrogen receptors by persistent pesticides in reporter cell lines. Life Sci. 2006 Aug 15;79(12):1160-9. Epub 2006 Mar 27. [16626760 ]
  3. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Involved in Hsp90 protein binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.7 Da
References
  1. Wang H, Li J, Gao Y, Xu Y, Pan Y, Tsuji I, Sun ZJ, Li XM: Xeno-oestrogens and phyto-oestrogens are alternative ligands for the androgen receptor. Asian J Androl. 2010 Jul;12(4):535-47. doi: 10.1038/aja.2010.14. Epub 2010 May 3. [20436506 ]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100579.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP2C2
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular Weight:
103186.475 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific Function:
Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases
Gene Name:
CALM1
Uniprot ID:
P62158
Molecular Weight:
16707.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Receptor for estrogen
Gene Name:
GPER
Uniprot ID:
Q99527
Molecular Weight:
42248.0 Da
References
  1. Thomas P, Dong J: Binding and activation of the seven-transmembrane estrogen receptor GPR30 by environmental estrogens: a potential novel mechanism of endocrine disruption. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Dec;102(1-5):175-9. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [17088055 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51802.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51340.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55165.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61641.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52147.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51035.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54235.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
54607.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54116.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.2 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.5 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in benzodiazepine receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.2 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.7 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55258.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.4 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity)
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.9 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B1
Uniprot ID:
P20020
Molecular Weight:
138754.045 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B2
Uniprot ID:
Q01814
Molecular Weight:
136875.18 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B3
Uniprot ID:
Q16720
Molecular Weight:
134196.025 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B4
Uniprot ID:
P23634
Molecular Weight:
137919.03 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. Contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) and in neurons (Ih). May mediate responses to sour stimuli.
Gene Name:
HCN1
Uniprot ID:
O60741
Molecular Weight:
98795.285 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. Contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) and in neurons (Ih). Can also transport ammonium in the distal nephron. Produces a large instantaneous current. Modulated by intracellular chloride ions and pH; acidic pH shifts the activation to more negative voltages (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HCN2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UL51
Molecular Weight:
96949.43 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Hyperpolarization-activated potassium channel. May also facilitate the permeation of sodium ions.
Gene Name:
HCN3
Uniprot ID:
Q9P1Z3
Molecular Weight:
86030.975 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in synaptic transmission
Specific Function:
Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel with very slow activation and inactivation exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. Contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) that regulate the rhythm of heart beat. May contribute to the native pacemaker currents in neurons (Ih). May mediate responses to sour stimuli.
Gene Name:
HCN4
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y3Q4
Molecular Weight:
129040.65 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98982.0 Da
References
  1. Scippo ML, Argiris C, Van De Weerdt C, Muller M, Willemsen P, Martial J, Maghuin-Rogister G: Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Feb;378(3):664-9. Epub 2003 Oct 25. [14579009 ]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular Weight:
110251.4 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform SERCA2A is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular Weight:
114755.8 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular Weight:
113976.23 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient
Gene Name:
SCN1A
Uniprot ID:
P35498
Molecular Weight:
228974.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Its electrophysiological properties vary depending on the type of the associated beta subunits (in vitro). Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms
Gene Name:
SCN10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y9
Molecular Weight:
220568.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Also involved, with the contribution of the receptor tyrosine kinase NTRK2, in rapid BDNF-evoked neuronal depolarization
Gene Name:
SCN11A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI33
Molecular Weight:
204951.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient
Gene Name:
SCN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q99250
Molecular Weight:
227977.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient
Gene Name:
SCN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY46
Molecular Weight:
226297.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeletal muscle
Gene Name:
SCN4A
Uniprot ID:
P35499
Molecular Weight:
208034.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in the electrocardiogram
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
227165.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion transport
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN7A
Uniprot ID:
Q01118
Molecular Weight:
193491.605 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient
Gene Name:
SCN8A
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQD0
Molecular Weight:
225283.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, especially in the development of inflammatory pain
Gene Name:
SCN9A
Uniprot ID:
Q15858
Molecular Weight:
226345.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons
Gene Name:
SCN1B
Uniprot ID:
Q07699
Molecular Weight:
24707.0 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity)
Gene Name:
SCN2B
Uniprot ID:
O60939
Molecular Weight:
24325.7 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity)
Gene Name:
SCN3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY72
Molecular Weight:
24702.1 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation (By similarity)
Gene Name:
SCN4B
Uniprot ID:
Q8IWT1
Molecular Weight:
24968.8 Da
References
  1. Davies TG, Field LM, Usherwood PN, Williamson MS: DDT, pyrethrins, pyrethroids and insect sodium channels. IUBMB Life. 2007 Mar;59(3):151-62. [17487686 ]
General Function:
Inorganic ion transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112897.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in visual learning
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in visual learning
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in transport
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.0 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Involved in rhodopsin-like receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for thyrothropin. Plays a central role in controlling thyroid cell metabolism. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase. Also acts as a receptor for thyrostimulin (GPA2+GPB5)
Gene Name:
TSHR
Uniprot ID:
P16473
Molecular Weight:
86831.0 Da
References
  1. Rossi M, Dimida A, Dell'anno MT, Trincavelli ML, Agretti P, Giorgi F, Corsini GU, Pinchera A, Vitti P, Tonacchera M, Maggio R: The thyroid disruptor 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethane appears to be an uncompetitive inverse agonist for the thyrotropin receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jan;320(1):465-74. Epub 2006 Oct 24. [17062616 ]
General Function:
Involved in fatty acid binding
Specific Function:
Transcriptionally controlled transcription factor. Binds to DNA sites required for the transcription of alpha 1- antitrypsin, apolipoprotein CIII, transthyretin genes and HNF1- alpha. May be essential for development of the liver, kidney and intestine
Gene Name:
HNF4A
Uniprot ID:
P41235
Molecular Weight:
52784.2 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.23 uMATG_HNF4a_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]