You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:57:58 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:20:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0042
Identification
Common NameBeryllium
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBeryllium is a light-weight metallic element, which was first recognized as a lung hazard in Europe in the 1930s, shortly after its first production in modern industry. People exposed to beryllium compounds are at increased risk of developing beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The chronic lung disease was first described among workers exposed to beryllium-containing materials used in the manufacture of fluorescent lamps. In primary production of beryllium metal, which was used in nuclear weapons components, physicians recognized severe dermatitis, reversible pneumonitis, and chronic granulomatous lung disease. Physiologically, this metal/element exists as an ion in the body. It is now recognized that the physicochemical properties of beryllium compounds may account for the differing clinical presentations in different industries. In primary production of beryllium metal, soluble salts are present and cause rashes in approximately one fourth of exposed workers and reversible acute pneumonitis in a smaller portion of the workforce. After heavy inhalation exposures, radiographic abnormalities evolve at approximately three weeks; resolution of symptoms and radiologic abnormalities away from exposure occur only after months, but symptoms recur immediately upon reexposure. The granulomatous nature of chronic beryllium disease is now known to be caused by cell-mediated sensitization to beryllium. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells. Depending on genetic susceptibility and the nature of the exposure, CBD occurs in up to 20% of exposed workers. Genetic susceptibility has been associated with particular HLA-DP alleles, especially those possessing a negatively charged glutamic acid residue at the 69th position of the beta-chain. The mechanism for this association lies in the ability of these HLA-DP molecules to bind and present beryllium to pathogenic CD4(+) T cells. Large numbers of effector memory, beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells are recruited to the lung of these subjects and secrete Th1-type cytokines upon beryllium recognition. The presence of circulating beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells directly correlates with the severity of lymphocytic alveolitis. Since 1987, this biomarker of sensitization has enabled medical surveillance of beryllium-exposed workforces. Beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests have been used to screen workers to detect sensitization, to characterize epidemiologically workplace risks for beryllium sensitization, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions intended to prevent sensitization. The most compelling real-world example of genetic testing for susceptibility to a workplace exposure involves those industries that process or fabricate beryllium. Under reasonable assumptions, the longitudinal positive predictive value of the HLA-DPB1-Glu69 marker of susceptibility to beryllium disease is 12%. Interpretive challenges further limit the utility of the test and may inadvertently suggest a false sense of safety among workers. Reduction in inhalation exposure to beryllium has not resulted in a concomitant reduction in the occurrence of beryllium sensitization or CBD, suggesting that continued prevalence may be due, in part, to unchecked skin exposure to beryllium-containing particles. (3, 4, 5).
Compound Type
  • Beryllium Compound
  • Cigarette Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Pollutant
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Be(2+)
Be2+
Berylliium(II) cation
Beryllium ion
Beryllium(2+)
Beryllium(2+) ion
Beryllium(II)
Beryllium(II) ion
Chemical FormulaBe
Average Molecular Mass9.011 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass9.011 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7440-41-7
IUPAC Nameberyllium(2+) ion
Traditional Nameberyllium(2+) ion
SMILES[Be++]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Be/q+2
InChI KeyInChIKey=PWOSZCQLSAMRQW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceGrey metallic solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point1300°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (6)
Mechanism of ToxicityOnce in the body, beryllium acts as a hapten and interacts with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DP presenting cells in the lungs, becoming physically associated with a major histocompatability (MHC) class II molecule. This MHC class II-beryllium-peptide complex is recognized by the T lymphocyte receptor, triggering CD4+ T lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The resulting inflammatory response is a cell-mediated process orchestrated by cytokines and results in the formation of (usually pulmonary) granulomas. Beryllium's toxicity may be controlled by the iron-storage protein ferritin, which sequesters beryllium by binding it and preventing it from interacting with other enzymes. (7, 1, 2)
MetabolismBeryllium is absorbed mainly through the lungs, where it enters the bloodstream and is transported throughout the body by binding to prealbumins and γ-globulins. Beryllium accumulates in lung tissue and the skeleton. It is excreted mainly in the urine. (7)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (9)
Uses/SourcesBeryllium is purified for use in nuclear weapons and reactors, aircraft and space vehicle structures, instruments, x-ray machines, and mirrors. Beryllium ores are used to make speciality ceramics for electrical and high-technology applications. Beryllium is often found in alloys which are used in automobiles, computers, sports equipment, and dental bridges. (6)
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Oral: 0.002 mg/kg/day (8)
Health EffectsAcute inhalation of a high level of beryllium can result in a pneumonia-like condition called acute beryllium disease. Chronic inhalation of beryllium can caused an inflammatory reaction in the respiratory system called chronic beryllium disease. Chronic beryllium disease may result in anorexia and weight loss, as well as right side heart enlargement and heart disease in advanced cases. Chronic exposure can also increase the risk of lung cancer. Skin contact with beryllium results in contact dermatitis. (6, 7)
SymptomsChronic beryllium disease causes fatigue, weakness, difficulty breathing, and a persistent dry cough. (6, 7)
TreatmentChronic beryllium disease is treated with immunosuppressive medicines, usually of the glucocorticoid class. (6)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB02387
PubChem Compound ID107649
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID96830
KEGG IDC16460
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID108730 , 142858 , 181000
ChEBI ID30502
BioCyc IDCPD0-1230
CTD IDD001608
Stitch IDBeryllium
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6383
Wikipedia LinkBeryllium
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Amicosante M, Berretta F, Dweik R, Saltini C: Role of high-affinity HLA-DP specific CLIP-derived peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DPGlu69 berylliosis-associated molecules and presentation to beryllium-sensitized T cells. Immunology. 2009 Sep;128(1 Suppl):e462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03000.x. Epub 2008 Dec 23. [19191908 ]
  2. Lindenschmidt RC, Sendelbach LE, Witschi HP, Price DJ, Fleming J, Joshi JG: Ferritin and in vivo beryllium toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986 Feb;82(2):344-50. [3945960 ]
  3. Kreiss K, Day GA, Schuler CR: Beryllium: a modern industrial hazard. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28:259-77. [17094767 ]
  4. Amicosante M, Fontenot AP: T cell recognition in chronic beryllium disease. Clin Immunol. 2006 Nov;121(2):134-43. Epub 2006 May 12. [16697706 ]
  5. Day GA, Stefaniak AB, Weston A, Tinkle SS: Beryllium exposure: dermal and immunological considerations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2006 Feb;79(2):161-4. Epub 2005 Oct 18. [16231190 ]
  6. Wikipedia. Beryllium. Last Updated 17 March 2009. [Link]
  7. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  8. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  9. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.
Gene Name:
HLA-DPA1
Uniprot ID:
P20036
Molecular Weight:
29380.345 Da
References
  1. Amicosante M, Berretta F, Dweik R, Saltini C: Role of high-affinity HLA-DP specific CLIP-derived peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DPGlu69 berylliosis-associated molecules and presentation to beryllium-sensitized T cells. Immunology. 2009 Sep;128(1 Suppl):e462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03000.x. Epub 2008 Dec 23. [19191908 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.
Gene Name:
HLA-DPB1
Uniprot ID:
P04440
Molecular Weight:
29159.195 Da
References
  1. Amicosante M, Berretta F, Dweik R, Saltini C: Role of high-affinity HLA-DP specific CLIP-derived peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DPGlu69 berylliosis-associated molecules and presentation to beryllium-sensitized T cells. Immunology. 2009 Sep;128(1 Suppl):e462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03000.x. Epub 2008 Dec 23. [19191908 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.
Gene Name:
HLA-DPB1
Uniprot ID:
P04440
Molecular Weight:
29159.195 Da
References
  1. Amicosante M, Berretta F, Dweik R, Saltini C: Role of high-affinity HLA-DP specific CLIP-derived peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DPGlu69 berylliosis-associated molecules and presentation to beryllium-sensitized T cells. Immunology. 2009 Sep;128(1 Suppl):e462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03000.x. Epub 2008 Dec 23. [19191908 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]