Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:57:58 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:20:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0043
Identification
Common Namedelta-Hexachlorocyclohexane
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionHexachlorocyclohexane, Delta- is one of eight isoforms of the commercially manufactured chemical hexachlorocyclohexane. It is used as an insecticide on fruit, vegetables, and forest crops and is also available as a prescription (lotion, cream, or shampoo) to treat head and body lice, and scabies. (3)
Compound Type
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(1alpha,2alpha,3alpha,4beta,5alpha,6beta)-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
(1r,2c,3c,4t,5c,6t)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
(1r,2c,3t,4t,5c,6t)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
(1r,2r,3r,4r,5r,6r)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
(1R,2R,3R,4R,5S,6S)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
(1r,2R,3S,4r,5R,6S)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
(1r,2R,3S,4s,5R,6S)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
(1R,2R,3S,4S,5S,6S)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
(1s,2R,3R,4s,5S,6S)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-Cyclohexane
1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane alpha isomer
1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane gamma isomer
1a,2a,3b,4a,5b,6b-hexachlorocyclohexane
1a,2b,3a,4b,5a,6b-hexachlorocyclohexane
Aalindan
Agronexit
alpha-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
Alpha-benzene hexachloride
Alpha-benzenehexachloride
Alpha-BHC
Alpha-HCH
Alpha-hexachloran
Alpha-hexachlorane
Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane
Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexanes
Alpha-lindane
Am eisenatod
Ameisenatod
Ameisenmittel merck
Ameisentod
Aparasin
Aphtiria
Aphtitria
Aplidal
Arbitex
Arcotal s
Benhexachlor
Benhexol
bentox 10
Benzanex
Benzene hexachloride
Benzene hexachloride (ambiguous)
Benzene hexachloride, all isomers
Benzene hexachloride-alpha-isomer
Benzene hexachloride-gamma isomer
Benzene hexachloride-gamma-isomer
Benzene-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloride ((Ambiguous)
Benzene-cis-hexachloride
Benzene-trans-hexachloride
Benzenehexachloride mixed isomers
Benzenehexachloride-alpha-isomer
Benzex
beta-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachloro-Cyclohexane
beta-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
Beta-benzene hexachloride
Beta-BHC
Beta-HCH
Beta-HCH solution
Beta-hexac hlorocyclohexane
Beta-hexachloran
Beta-hexachlorobenzene
Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane
Beta-hexachlorocyclohexanes
Beta-isomer
Beta-lindane
Bexol
Borer spray
Celanex
Chinoin brand of lindane
Chloresene
Codechine
DBH
Delitex
delta,1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-Cyclohexane
delta,1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
delta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-Cyclohexane
delta-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
Delta-benzene hexachloride
Delta-benzenehexachloride
Delta-BHC
Delta-HCH
Delta-hexachlorocyclohexane
Delta-lindane
Detmol extract
Detmol-extrakt
detox 25
Devoran
Dol granule
Dolmix
Drill tox-spezial aglukon
Drilltox-spezial aglukon
Entomoxan
Epsilon HCH
Epsilon-benzenehexachloride
Epsilon-HCH
Epsilon-hexachlorocyclohexane
Eso derm
Esoderm
Exagama
Fenoform forte
Forlin
Forst-nexen
Gallogama
Gamacarbatox
Gamacide
Gamacide 20
Gamaphex
Gamene
Gamiso
Gamma benzene hexachloride
Gamma BHC
Gamma hexachlor
Gamma hexachlorocyclohexane
gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
Gamma-benzene hexachloride
Gamma-benzenehexachloride
Gamma-benzohexachloride
Gamma-BHC (lindane)
Gamma-BHC benhexachlor
Gamma-col
Gamma-HCH
Gamma-hexachlorane
Gamma-hexachlorcyclohexanum
Gamma-hexachlorobenzene
Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane
Gamma-linda ne
Gammahexa
Gammahexane
Gammalin
Gammaterr
Gammex
Gammexane
Gammopaz
Gamtox
Geobilan
Gexane
Gyben
Heclotox
Hecoltox
Hexablanc
Hexachlor
Hexachloran
Hexachlorane
Hexachloride, benzene
Hexachloride, gamma-benzene
Hexachlorocyclohexane
Hexachlorocyclohexane-alpha
Hexachlorocyclohexane-beta
Hexachlorzyklohexan
Hexamul
Hexapoudre
Hexatox
Hexaverm
Hexcidum
Hexicide
Hexyclan
Hortex
Inexit
Infectopharm brand of lindane
Isatox
Isotox
Jacutin
Kokotine
Lacco hi lin
Lasochron
Lendine
Lentox
Lidenal
Lindafor
Lindagam
Lindagrain
Lindagranox
Lindalo
Lindane (benzene hexachloroide-gamma isomer)
Lindane (gamma-HCH)
Lindapoudre
Lindaterra
Lindatox
Lindex
Lindosep
Lintox
Linvur
Lorexane
Mszycol
Neo-scabicidol
Nicochloran
Novigam
Novigan
Omnitox
Ovadziak
Owadziak
Pedraczak
Pflanzol
Pharmascience brand of lindane
PLK
PMS lindane
PMS-lindane
Pmslindane
Quellada
Sang gamma
Scabecid
Scabene
Scabisan
Silvanol
Spritz-rapidin
Spritzlindane
Spruehpflanzol
Stiefel brand of lindane
Streunex
Submar
Technical HCH
Technical hexachlorocyclohexane
Tetocid
Trans-alpha-benzenehexachloride
Tri-6
Trives-t
Verindal ultra
Viton
δ-Hexachlorocyclohexane
Chemical FormulaC6H6Cl6
Average Molecular Mass290.830 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass287.860 g/mol
CAS Registry Number319-86-8
IUPAC Name(1R,2S,3r,4R,5S,6s)-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane
Traditional Namedelta-BHC
SMILES[H][C@]1(Cl)[C@]([H])(Cl)[C@@]([H])(Cl)[C@]([H])(Cl)[C@]([H])(Cl)[C@]1([H])Cl
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C6H6Cl6/c7-1-2(8)4(10)6(12)5(11)3(1)9/h1-6H/t1-,2-,3-,4+,5-,6-
InChI KeyInChIKey=JLYXXMFPNIAWKQ-GPIVLXJGNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cyclohexyl halides. These are organohalogen compounds containing a monocyclic cyclohexane moiety that is substituted at one or more positions by an halogen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassAlkyl halides
Sub ClassCyclohexyl halides
Direct ParentCyclohexyl halides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cyclohexyl halide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organochloride
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Membrane
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ddt DegradationNot AvailableNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder or colorless vapor.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point141.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.01 mg/mL at 20 °C [SHIU,WY et al.(1990)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0055 g/LALOGPS
logP3.94ALOGPS
logP4.35ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity54.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.39 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-a80ad4b803c6cfbad7f9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0190000000-94757a7ebf0ca8417382View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000f-4590000000-a1b5e62bd325a4408726View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-094eac0e1195e28c6f04View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-b09c755105529e48aaa9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0f79-0090000000-ee4766742eba17f9525eView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityHexachlorocyclohexane is a neurotoxin that interferes with GABA neurotransmitter function by interacting with the GABA-A receptor-chloride channel complex at the picrotoxin binding site, causing over stimulation of the central nervous system. It is also believed to inhibit sodium/potassium-transporting ATPases and be an endocrine disruptor. In the liver, hexachlorocyclohexane is thought to cause oxidative stress by interfering with hepatic oxidative capacity and glutathione metabolism, increasing lipid metabolism, and inhibiting magnesium ATPase activity. Hexachlorocyclohexane may also inhibit gap junction and intercellular communication, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor promotion. (3, 4, 1)
MetabolismHexachlorocyclohexane is absorbed through the skin, lungs, and intestines, then distributed mainly to the adipose tissue but also to the brain, kidney, muscle, and blood. Metabolism occurs via dechlorination, dehydrogenation, dehydrochlorination, and hydroxylation by hepatic cytochrome P-450 enzymes. The main metabolites are polychlorophenols and 1,2,4-trichlorocyclohexane-4,5-epoxide, which are excreted in the urine. (3)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1000 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not directly listed by IARC, but related hexachlorocyclohexanes are assigned to Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans (7, 8).
Uses/SourcesHexachlorocyclohexane is used as an insecticide on fruit, vegetables, and forest crops and is also available as a prescription (lotion, cream, or shampoo) to treat head and body lice, and scabies. (3)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsExposure to large amounts of hexachlorocyclohexane can harm the nervous system, producing a range of symptoms from headache and dizziness to seizures, convulsions and more rarely death. Hexachlorocyclohexane is known to damage the liver, kidneys, and immune system, as well as cause blood disorders and reproductive and developmental defects. Hexachlorocyclohexane is also potentially carcinogenic. (3, 4)
SymptomsExposure to large amounts of hexachlorocyclohexane can harm the nervous system, producing a range of symptoms from headache and dizziness to seizures, convulsions and more rarely death. (4)
TreatmentHexachlorocyclohexane poisoning is treated symptomatically. Gastric lavage, followed by the administration of activated charcoal, may be performed upon ingestion. (6)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID727
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1874247
ChemSpider ID10430682
KEGG IDC06988
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID39095
BioCyc IDGAMMA-HCH
CTD IDC086916
Stitch IDHexachlorocyclohexane, delta-
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6461
Wikipedia LinkLindane
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0043.pdf
General References
  1. Li J, Li N, Ma M, Giesy JP, Wang Z: In vitro profiling of the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides. Toxicol Lett. 2008 Dec 15;183(1-3):65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.10.002. Epub 2008 Oct 17. [18992306 ]
  2. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for hexachlorocyclohexane. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Lindane. Last Updated 3 April 2009. [Link]
  5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  6. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (2001). Poison Information Monograph for Lindane. [Link]
  7. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1987. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42. IARC monograph, Supplement 7. [Link]
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1979. Some Halogenated Hydrocarbons. IARC monograph, volume 20. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Li J, Li N, Ma M, Giesy JP, Wang Z: In vitro profiling of the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides. Toxicol Lett. 2008 Dec 15;183(1-3):65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.10.002. Epub 2008 Oct 17. [18992306 ]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C2
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular Weight:
103186.475 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Orphan receptor that acts as transcription activator in the absence of bound ligand. Binds specifically to an estrogen response element and activates reporter genes controlled by estrogen response elements (By similarity). Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
ESRRG
Uniprot ID:
P62508
Molecular Weight:
51305.485 Da
References
  1. Li J, Li N, Ma M, Giesy JP, Wang Z: In vitro profiling of the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides. Toxicol Lett. 2008 Dec 15;183(1-3):65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.10.002. Epub 2008 Oct 17. [18992306 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Kojima H, Sata F, Takeuchi S, Sueyoshi T, Nagai T: Comparative study of human and mouse pregnane X receptor agonistic activity in 200 pesticides using in vitro reporter gene assays. Toxicology. 2011 Feb 27;280(3):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2010.11.008. Epub 2010 Nov 27. [21115097 ]
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B1
Uniprot ID:
P20020
Molecular Weight:
138754.045 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Protein c-terminus binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B2
Uniprot ID:
Q01814
Molecular Weight:
136875.18 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B3
Uniprot ID:
Q16720
Molecular Weight:
134196.025 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Calcium/calmodulin-regulated and magnesium-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell (PubMed:8530416). By regulating sperm cell calcium homeostasis, may play a role in sperm motility (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP2B4
Uniprot ID:
P23634
Molecular Weight:
137919.03 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform A: inactive in stimulating c-Src/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone.
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98979.96 Da
References
  1. Li J, Li N, Ma M, Giesy JP, Wang Z: In vitro profiling of the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides. Toxicol Lett. 2008 Dec 15;183(1-3):65-71. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.10.002. Epub 2008 Oct 17. [18992306 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Key regulator of striated muscle performance by acting as the major Ca(2+) ATPase responsible for the reuptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular Weight:
110251.36 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
S100 protein binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle.
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular Weight:
114755.765 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular Weight:
113976.23 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.265 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.