Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:57:58 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:20:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0044
Identification
Common Name1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
ClassSmall Molecule
Description1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane is a manufactured chemical and the active ingredient in the nematicide Nemagon, also known as Fumazone. Nemagon is a soil fumigant formerly used in agriculture but banned to most areas today. (4)
Compound Type
  • Bromide Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Organobromide
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)
1,2-Dibromochloropropane
1,3-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
1-Chloro-2,3-dibromopropane
2,3-Dibromo-1-chloropropane
3-Chloro-1,2-dibromopropane
Fumagon
Fumazone
Gro-tone nematode granular
Nemabrom
Nemafume
Nemagon
Nemagon soil fumigant
Nemagone
Nemanax
Nemanex
Nemapaz
Nemaset
Nematocide
Nematox
Nemazon
Chemical FormulaC3H5Br2Cl
Average Molecular Mass236.333 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass233.845 g/mol
CAS Registry Number96-12-8
IUPAC Name1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane
Traditional Name1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane
SMILESClCC(Br)CBr
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C3H5Br2Cl/c4-1-3(5)2-6/h3H,1-2H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=WBEJYOJJBDISQU-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organochlorides. Organochlorides are compounds containing a chemical bond between a carbon atom and a chlorine atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassOrganochlorides
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentOrganochlorides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organochloride
  • Organobromide
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Alkyl bromide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytosol
  • Membrane
  • Microsome
  • Mitochondrion
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point6°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1.23 mg/mL at 20 °C [MUNNECKE,DE & VANGUNDY,SD (1979)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.18 g/LALOGPS
logP2.95ALOGPS
logP2.6ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity35.64 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.5 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0190000000-f0bca5ddedb90e7a3148View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0190000000-7d23b3a37f8710b52434View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uea-2900000000-c9c1099b64d41ad21084View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0290000000-56143355a779c964900fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000t-0930000000-772ba1158fddcd576fe0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udj-1900000000-6c76a8263e2e1b3e0cdeView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a6r-9800000000-7431833bc5f35bfd0c4bView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe initial metabolism of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane to reactive epoxide metabolites that bind to DNA and other macromolecules may be responsible for its hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The mechanism of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane's testicular toxicity is believed to be due to either the inhibition of sperm carbohydrate metabolism, probably at the step of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, or drect DNA damage caused by its metabolites. (3, 1)
Metabolism1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane is absorbed via oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. It accumulates mainly in the kidney, liver, and adipose tissues. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane is intially converted to epoxy derivatives, which are further hydrolyzed and debrominated. Glutathione (GSH) conjugation of epoxide intermediates in the liver is believed to produce precursors to toxic intermediates. The metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine. (3)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 100 mg/kg (Oral, Rabbit) (2) LC50: 1480 mg/m3 over 1 hour (Inhalation, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (6)
Uses/Sources1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane is the active ingredient in the nematicide Nemagon, also known as Fumazone. Nemagon is a soil fumigant formerly used in agriculture. (3)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Inhalation: 0.0002 ppm (5) Intermediate Oral: 0.002 mg/kg/day (5)
Health EffectsBreathing high levels of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane causes reproductive damage, including reduced sperm counts, birth defects, and infertility. It may also damage the stomach, liver, kidneys, brain, spleen, blood, and lungs, and cause skin and eye damage from direct contact. (3)
SymptomsSymptoms of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane exposure include headaches, nausea, lightheadedness, and weakness. (3)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7280
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID136192
KEGG IDC14336
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDBETA-AMINOPROPIONITRILE
CTD IDC007318
Stitch ID1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID416
Wikipedia Link1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0044.pdf
General References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
  2. USEPA (1985). Drinking Water Criteria Document (Draft) 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane.
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane. Last Updated 25 April 2009. [Link]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C2
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular Weight:
103186.475 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFV1
Uniprot ID:
P49821
Molecular Weight:
50816.685 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFV2
Uniprot ID:
P19404
Molecular Weight:
27391.36 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFV3
Uniprot ID:
P56181
Molecular Weight:
11940.435 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS2
Uniprot ID:
O75306
Molecular Weight:
52545.26 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS3
Uniprot ID:
O75489
Molecular Weight:
30241.245 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS4
Uniprot ID:
O43181
Molecular Weight:
20107.84 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS5
Uniprot ID:
O43920
Molecular Weight:
12517.415 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS6
Uniprot ID:
O75380
Molecular Weight:
13711.535 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Quinone binding
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS7
Uniprot ID:
O75251
Molecular Weight:
23563.3 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity). May donate electrons to ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS8
Uniprot ID:
O00217
Molecular Weight:
23704.795 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity). This is the largest subunit of complex I and it is a component of the iron-sulfur (IP) fragment of the enzyme. It may form part of the active site crevice where NADH is oxidized.
Gene Name:
NDUFS1
Uniprot ID:
P28331
Molecular Weight:
79466.77 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular Weight:
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND2
Uniprot ID:
P03891
Molecular Weight:
38960.47 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND3
Uniprot ID:
P03897
Molecular Weight:
13185.87 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND4
Uniprot ID:
P03905
Molecular Weight:
51580.26 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND4L
Uniprot ID:
P03901
Molecular Weight:
10741.005 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND5
Uniprot ID:
P03915
Molecular Weight:
67025.67 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND6
Uniprot ID:
P03923
Molecular Weight:
18622.045 Da
References
  1. Greenwell A, Tomaszewski KE, Melnick RL: A biochemical basis for 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane-induced male infertility: inhibition of sperm mitochondrial electron transport activity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1987 Nov;91(2):274-80. [3672526 ]
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B1
Uniprot ID:
P20020
Molecular Weight:
138754.045 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Protein c-terminus binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B2
Uniprot ID:
Q01814
Molecular Weight:
136875.18 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B3
Uniprot ID:
Q16720
Molecular Weight:
134196.025 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Calcium/calmodulin-regulated and magnesium-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell (PubMed:8530416). By regulating sperm cell calcium homeostasis, may play a role in sperm motility (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP2B4
Uniprot ID:
P23634
Molecular Weight:
137919.03 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Key regulator of striated muscle performance by acting as the major Ca(2+) ATPase responsible for the reuptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular Weight:
110251.36 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
S100 protein binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle.
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular Weight:
114755.765 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular Weight:
113976.23 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.265 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.