Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:57:59 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:20:58 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0048
Identification
Common NameAroclor 1221
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAroclor 1221 is a commercial mixture of PCBs with an average chlorine content of 21%. It is composed of mainly monochlorobiphenyls (60.06%), and also includes bi-, tri, tetra-, and pentachlorinated homologs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 synthetic organic compounds with 1-10 chlorine atoms attached to biphenyl. PCBs were manufactured as commercial mixtures but banned in the 1970's because they were found to bioaccumulate in the environment and cause harmful health effects. However, PCBs do not break down readily and are still found in the environment. (9)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Coolant
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Plasticizer
  • Pollutant
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyl
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Arochlor 1221
PCB Aroclor 1221
PCB-1221
Polychorinated biphenyl 1221
Chemical FormulaC12H9Cl
Average Molecular Mass188.653 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass188.039 g/mol
CAS Registry Number11104-28-2
IUPAC Name1-chloro-3-phenylbenzene
Traditional Namechlorobiphenyl
SMILESClC1=CC=CC(=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H9Cl/c13-12-8-4-7-11(9-12)10-5-2-1-3-6-10/h1-9H
InChI KeyInChIKey=NMWSKOLWZZWHPL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorinated biphenyls. These are organic compounds containing at least one chlorine atom attached to either benzene ring of the biphenyl moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBiphenyls and derivatives
Direct ParentChlorinated biphenyls
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Chlorinated biphenyl
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear oil.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling Point275–320 °C
Solubility0.015 mg/mL at 25 °C [MABEY,WR et al. (1981)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0027 g/LALOGPS
logP4.57ALOGPS
logP4.22ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity56 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability20.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-078debf47293a3078f91View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-52452caf77d9f8e3fb09View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0h2r-2900000000-f9982da6093a66e231dbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-2317f5aa7599807b806bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-2317f5aa7599807b806bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-84060a760e32ca7b8c8cView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0f79-4900000000-54a8899979dcb8b378c7View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (9) ; inhalation (9) ; dermal (9)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe mechanism of action varies with the specific PCB. Dioxin-like PCBs bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which disrupts cell function by altering the transcription of genes, mainly be inducing the expression of hepatic Phase I and Phase II enzymes, especially of the cytochrome P450 family. Most of the toxic effects of PCBs are believed to be results of Ah receptor binding. Other PBCs are believed to interfere with calcium channels and/or change brain dopamine levels. PCBs can also cause endocrine disurption by altering the production of thyroid hormones and binding to estrogen receptors, which can stimulate the growth of certain cancer cells and produce other estrogenic effects, such as reproductive dysfunction. They will bioaccumulate by binding to receptor proteins such as uteroglobin. (1, 2, 5, 6)
MetabolismPCBs are absorbed via inhalation, oral, and dermal routes of exposure. They are trasported in the blood, often bound to albumin. Due to their lipophilic nature they tend to accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as the liver, adipose, and skin. Metabolism of PCBs is very slow and varies based on the degree and position of chlorination. PCBs are metabolized by the microsomal monooxygenase system catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 enzymes to polar metabolites that can undergo conjugation with glutathione and glucuronic acid. The major metabolites are hydroxylated products which are excreted in the bile and faeces. The slow metabolism of PCBs means they tend to accumulate in body tissues. (9, 7)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 3980 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (8)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (11)
Uses/SourcesPCBs were used as coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, and other electrical devices (such as fluorescent lights and refrigerators) produced before 1977. PCBs may contaminate the air and water near hazardouc waste sites. In addition, PCBs bioaccumulate in the environment and may be found in fish, meat, and dairy products. (9)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.03 ug/kg/day (10)
Health EffectsThe most common health effects of PCBs are skin conditions such as chloracne and rashes. Chronic PCB exposure has also been shown to cause liver, stomach and kidney, damage, jaundice, edema, anemia, changes in the immune system, behavioral alterations, and impaired reproduction. (9)
SymptomsChronic PCB exposure results in symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, depression, nervousness, dermal and ocular lesions, fatigue, irregular menstrual cycles and a lowered immune response. (1)
TreatmentThere are no specific treatments for PCB poisoning, since it is not usually recognized until after substantial chronic exposure. Only preventing further exposure and treating the observed symptoms can be done. Acute inhalation can be treated by administering oxygen. (9)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC032739
Stitch IDAroclor 1221
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0048.pdf
General References
  1. Aoki Y: Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as endocrine disrupters--what we have learned from Yusho disease. Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):2-11. [11386736 ]
  2. Safe S, Bandiera S, Sawyer T, Robertson L, Safe L, Parkinson A, Thomas PE, Ryan DE, Reik LM, Levin W, et al.: PCBs: structure-function relationships and mechanism of action. Environ Health Perspect. 1985 May;60:47-56. [2992927 ]
  3. Horowitz Y, Greenberg D, Ling G, Lifshitz M: Acrodynia: a case report of two siblings. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Jun;86(6):453. [12023189 ]
  4. Gill KD, Gupta V, Sandhir R: Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated neurotransmitter release and neurobehavioural deficits following lead exposure. Cell Biochem Funct. 2003 Dec;21(4):345-53. [14624473 ]
  5. Troisi GM, Haraguchi K, Kaydoo DS, Nyman M, Aguilar A, Borrell A, Siebert U, Mason CF: Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenylethane (DDE) methyl sulfones in tissues of seal and dolphin morbillivirus epizootic victims. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jan 12;62(1):1-8. [11205532 ]
  6. Kester MH, Bulduk S, Tibboel D, Meinl W, Glatt H, Falany CN, Coughtrie MW, Bergman A, Safe SH, Kuiper GG, Schuur AG, Brouwer A, Visser TJ: Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs. Endocrinology. 2000 May;141(5):1897-900. [10803601 ]
  7. World Health Organization (1993). Environ Health Criteria 140: Polychlorniated Biphenyls and Terphenyls.
  8. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  9. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  10. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  11. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of estradiol and estrone. May play a role in the regulation of estrogen receptor activity by metabolizing free estradiol. Maximally sulfates beta-estradiol and estrone at concentrations of 20 nM. Also sulfates dehydroepiandrosterone, pregnenolone, ethinylestradiol, equalenin, diethylstilbesterol and 1-naphthol, at significantly higher concentrations; however, cortisol, testosterone and dopamine are not sulfated.
Gene Name:
SULT1E1
Uniprot ID:
P49888
Molecular Weight:
35126.185 Da
References
  1. Aoki Y: Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as endocrine disrupters--what we have learned from Yusho disease. Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):2-11. [11386736 ]
  2. Kester MH, Bulduk S, Tibboel D, Meinl W, Glatt H, Falany CN, Coughtrie MW, Bergman A, Safe SH, Kuiper GG, Schuur AG, Brouwer A, Visser TJ: Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs. Endocrinology. 2000 May;141(5):1897-900. [10803601 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular Weight:
53925.815 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Safe S, Bandiera S, Sawyer T, Robertson L, Safe L, Parkinson A, Thomas PE, Ryan DE, Reik LM, Levin W, et al.: PCBs: structure-function relationships and mechanism of action. Environ Health Perspect. 1985 May;60:47-56. [2992927 ]
General Function:
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Gene Name:
TH
Uniprot ID:
P07101
Molecular Weight:
58599.545 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Polychlorinated biphenyl binding
Specific Function:
Binds phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and weakly progesterone, potent inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Gene Name:
SCGB1A1
Uniprot ID:
P11684
Molecular Weight:
9993.6 Da
References
  1. Troisi GM, Haraguchi K, Kaydoo DS, Nyman M, Aguilar A, Borrell A, Siebert U, Mason CF: Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenylethane (DDE) methyl sulfones in tissues of seal and dolphin morbillivirus epizootic victims. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jan 12;62(1):1-8. [11205532 ]