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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:57:59 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:20:59 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0052
Identification
Common NameDibutyl phthalate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDibutyl phthalate is found in cloves. DBP was added to the California Proposition 65 (1986) list of suspected teratogens in November 2006. It is a suspected endocrine disruptor. It was used in some nail polishes; all major producers began eliminating this chemical from nail polishes in the Fall of 2006. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer. It is also used as an additive to adhesives or printing inks. It is soluble in various organic solvents, e.g. in alcohol, ether and benzene. DBP is also used as an ectoparasiticide.
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Cosmetic Toxin
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Phthalate
  • Plasticizer
  • Pollutant
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-dibutyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibutyl ester
Araldite 502
Benzene-O-dicarboxylic acid di-N-butyl ester
Benzene-O-dicarboxylic acid, di-N-butyl ester
Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibutyl ester
BUFA
Butyl phthalate
Butylphthalate
Celluflex DPB
DBP (ester)
Di N butyl phthalate
Di-N-butyl phthalate
Di-N-butyl phthalate (dbup)
Di-N-butylester kyseliny ftalove
Di-N-butylorthophthalate
di-N-butyphthalatel
Dibutyl 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylate
Dibutyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
Dibutyl ester of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid
Dibutyl O-phthalate
Dibutyl phthalated
Dibutyl phthalic acid
Dibutyl-1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
Dibutyl-O-phthalate
Dibutyl-Phthalate
Dibutyll phthalate
Dibutylphthalate
Dibutylphthatlate
Elaol
Ergoplast FDB
Ersoplast fda
Genoplast B
Hatcol DBP
Hexaplas m/b
Kodaflex DBP
Morflex 240
N-Butyl phthalate
N-Butylphthalate
O-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dibutyl ester
Ortho-dibutyl phthalate
Phthalic acid di-N-butyl ester
Phthalic acid dibutyl ester
Phthalic acid, dibutyl ester
Polycizer DBP
Rapidcelltrade markP
RC plasticizer DBP
Staflex DBP
Uniflex DBP
Unimoll DB
Uniplex 150
Witcizer 300
Chemical FormulaC16H22O4
Average Molecular Mass278.344 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass278.152 g/mol
CAS Registry Number84-74-2
IUPAC Name1,2-dibutyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
Traditional Namedibutyl-phthalate
SMILESCCCCOC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1C(=O)OCCCC
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C16H22O4/c1-3-5-11-19-15(17)13-9-7-8-10-14(13)16(18)20-12-6-4-2/h7-10H,3-6,11-12H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=DOIRQSBPFJWKBE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentBenzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzoate ester
  • Benzoyl
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless oily liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point35°C
Boiling Point340 °C
Solubility0.0112 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP4.5
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00596 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.53ALOGPS
logP4.63ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity77.86 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.15 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0a4i-5190000000-8daed01d42925467217cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-0a6s-0490000000-bb10c8ff49d65e9fbcfdView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-1910000000-964b3411de1f914de4daView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-0910000000-97464fdc3b8040ec3d36View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-052b-0960000000-7a12a722da333ebed5e0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-5900000000-bb309d93583ab774d1f9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-0a6s-0490000000-bb10c8ff49d65e9fbcfdView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-1910000000-964b3411de1f914de4daView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-0910000000-97464fdc3b8040ec3d36View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-052b-0960000000-7a12a722da333ebed5e0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-5900000000-bb309d93583ab774d1f9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-0590000000-d7fd13586fba8d9bcbb8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-003r-0900000000-26a0280d411587ad0406View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-003r-0900000000-01dec35be5d4cb24d183View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-00b9-1900000000-0a9f876d83f5cdff62beView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-6900000000-88c2bba04cf08d8a94e7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-6e11d76c309a036870daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-24ad78f1c73dbed6290dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-2d5177b1586a4461b278View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-4516fb7c10721dc8cedbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0910000000-7702573da14ce44e4e73View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-78eaf490a7fb4d87b419View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-5c75cf8111466a2bd813View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-a0747aefa385c43d47b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-006t-1900000000-29635db4a2da5e62db7fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00xs-5900000000-02c97dee9727d0badc2eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-014i-9200000000-2b0820b30884f0f997a5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-5d4f80a8a661596a7cc8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-f45a033b5a30528756deView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-19ad0b11756e1ca9188aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-c218819436377fba26c9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0930000000-3ffd578a63631650756aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0002-0920000000-f84bcb5ebbad7fcd0a80View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-0b26194ced4d64df6a2fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1090000000-5c82ef4822a947c8f20bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00fr-2590000000-eadc4a21565f062f1e5aView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0002-3900000000-ecab0016129a96c4ece7View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (18) ; inhalation (18) ; dermal (18)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe most characteristic effect of di-n-butyl phthalate is testicular atrophy. Di-n-butyl phthalate exposure causes both the release of iron from hemoglobin and/or transferrin in the liver and spleen, and the subsequent depletion of iron in the blood and testes. The decreased amount of available iron results in a decrease in succinate dehydrogenase activity in the Sertoli cells. This results in disturbances in the energy transfer system between Sertoli cells and germ cells, which is required for the differentiation of male germ cells and their progression through the seminiferous epithelium and release as mature spermatozoa. Di-n-butyl phthalate may also exhibit weak estrogenic activity. It has been shown to exhibit toxic effects in liver mitochondria by uncoupling energy-linked processes and inhibiting succinate dehydrogenase. (18, 1)
MetabolismDi-n-butyl phthalate is absorbed via oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. It is rapidly distributed and cleared from the body. Metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate proceeds mainly by nonspecific esterases in the gastrointestinal tract, which hydrolyze of one butyl ester bond to yield mono-n-butyl phthalate, the primary toxic metabolite. Mono-n-butyl phthalate is conjugated with glucuronic acid via glucuronosyltransferase and excreted in the urine. (18)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 3050 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (16) LD50: 720 mg/kg (Intravenous, Mouse) (16) LD50: 5289 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (16) LC50: 25 g/m3 over 2 hours (Inhalation, Mouse) (16)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesDi-n-butyl phthalate is used to make plastics more flexible and is also in carpet backings, paints, glue, insect repellents, hair spray, nail polish, and rocket fuel. (18)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAdverse effects from di-n-butyl phthalate exposure have not yet been reported in humans. However, animals studies have shown that di-n-butyl phthalate can affect reproductive ability by decreasing sperm count and causing birth defects. (18)
SymptomsSkin contact with di-n-butyl phthalate may cause mild irritation. (18)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB33244
PubChem Compound ID3026
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID13837319
KEGG IDC14214
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID535597
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDD003993
Stitch IDDi-n-butyl phthalate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID1740
Wikipedia LinkDibutyl_phthalate
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Melnick RL, Schiller CM: Mitochondrial toxicity of phthalate esters. Environ Health Perspect. 1982 Nov;45:51-6. [7140696 ]
  2. Kim H, Lee S, Ryu S, Choi HT: Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R by a purified laccase of Polyporus brumalis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012 Jan;166(1):159-64. doi: 10.1007/s12010-011-9412-y. Epub 2011 Nov 5. [22057907 ]
  3. Gupta VK, Singh LP, Chandra S, Kumar S, Singh R, Sethi B: Anion recognition through amide-based dendritic molecule: a poly(vinyl chloride) based sensor for nitrate ion. Talanta. 2011 Aug 15;85(2):970-4. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.05.014. Epub 2011 May 12. [21726726 ]
  4. Cirillo T, Fasano E, Castaldi E, Montuori P, Amodio Cocchieri R: Children's exposure to Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dibutylphthalate plasticizers from school meals. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Oct 12;59(19):10532-8. doi: 10.1021/jf2020446. Epub 2011 Sep 19. [21894916 ]
  5. Ito Y, Nakamura T, Yanagiba Y, Ramdhan DH, Yamagishi N, Naito H, Kamijima M, Gonzalez FJ, Nakajima T: Plasticizers May Activate Human Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha Less Than That of a Mouse but May Activate Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Liver. PPAR Res. 2012;2012:201284. doi: 10.1155/2012/201284. Epub 2012 Jun 20. [22792086 ]
  6. Simonsson C, Stenfeldt AL, Karlberg AT, Ericson MB, Jonsson CA: The pilosebaceous unit--a phthalate-induced pathway to skin sensitization. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 Oct 1;264(1):114-20. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2012.07.023. Epub 2012 Jul 27. [22842015 ]
  7. Petersen JH, Jensen LK: Phthalates and food-contact materials: enforcing the 2008 European Union plastics legislation. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010 Nov;27(11):1608-16. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2010.501825. [20737341 ]
  8. Fishman AI, Noskov AI, Stolov AA: Conformational mobility of small molecules in glass-forming solutions studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2012 Jun;91:184-91. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2012.01.060. Epub 2012 Feb 9. [22381789 ]
  9. Tyagi S, Agarwal H, Ikram S: A polyvinylchloride-based cadmium ion-selective electrode using [Mo(2)(OAc)(2)(H(2)-calix[4]arene)] as an electroactive material. Water Sci Technol. 2010;62(11):2510-8. doi: 10.2166/wst.2010.774. [21099036 ]
  10. Brucker-Davis F, Wagner-Mahler K, Bornebusch L, Delattre I, Ferrari P, Gal J, Boda-Buccino M, Pacini P, Tommasi C, Azuar P, Bongain A, Fenichel P: Exposure to selected endocrine disruptors and neonatal outcome of 86 healthy boys from Nice area (France). Chemosphere. 2010 Sep;81(2):169-76. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.06.068. [20663538 ]
  11. Dobrzynska MM, Tyrkiel EJ, Hernik A, Derezinska E, Goralczyk K, Ludwicki JK: [The effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the somatic cells of laboratory mice]. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2010;61(1):13-9. [20803895 ]
  12. Carran M, Shaw IC: New Zealand Malayan war veterans' exposure to dibutylphthalate is associated with an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, hypospadias and breast cancer in their children. N Z Med J. 2012 Jul 29;125(1358):52-63. [22864157 ]
  13. Singh AK, Singh P: Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle. Anal Chim Acta. 2010 Aug 24;675(2):170-80. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2010.07.023. Epub 2010 Jul 21. [20800729 ]
  14. van Ravenzwaay B, Coelho-Palermo Cunha G, Strauss V, Wiemer J, Leibold E, Kamp H, Walk T, Mellert W, Looser R, Prokoudine A, Fabian E, Krennrich G, Herold M: The individual and combined metabolite profiles (metabolomics) of dibutylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate following a 28-day dietary exposure in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2010 Oct 5;198(2):159-70. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.06.009. Epub 2010 Jun 23. [20600714 ]
  15. Tyagi S, Agarwal H, Ikram S: Potentiometric polymeric membrane electrodes for mercury detection using calixarene ionophores. Water Sci Technol. 2010;61(3):693-704. doi: 10.2166/wst.2010.860. [20150706 ]
  16. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  17. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  18. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Toxicological profile for di-n-butyl phthalate. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Lapinskas PJ, Brown S, Leesnitzer LM, Blanchard S, Swanson C, Cattley RC, Corton JC: Role of PPARalpha in mediating the effects of phthalates and metabolites in the liver. Toxicology. 2005 Feb 1;207(1):149-63. [15590130 ]
  2. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Lapinskas PJ, Brown S, Leesnitzer LM, Blanchard S, Swanson C, Cattley RC, Corton JC: Role of PPARalpha in mediating the effects of phthalates and metabolites in the liver. Toxicology. 2005 Feb 1;207(1):149-63. [15590130 ]
  2. Pereira-Fernandes A, Demaegdt H, Vandermeiren K, Hectors TL, Jorens PG, Blust R, Vanparys C: Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 14;8(10):e77481. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077481. eCollection 2013. [24155963 ]
General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Mankidy R, Wiseman S, Ma H, Giesy JP: Biological impact of phthalates. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Feb 13;217(1):50-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.11.025. Epub 2012 Dec 7. [23220035 ]
General Function:
Proteoglycan binding
Specific Function:
Thiol protease which is believed to participate in intracellular degradation and turnover of proteins. Has also been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis.
Gene Name:
CTSB
Uniprot ID:
P07858
Molecular Weight:
37821.35 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50420 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50371946
References
  1. Hoang VL, Li Y, Kim SK: Cathepsin B inhibitory activities of phthalates isolated from a marine Pseudomonas strain. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Mar 15;18(6):2083-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.01.097. Epub 2008 Jan 30. [18289850 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Toda C, Okamoto Y, Ueda K, Hashizume K, Itoh K, Kojima N: Unequivocal estrogen receptor-binding affinity of phthalate esters featured with ring hydroxylation and proper alkyl chain size. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Nov 1;431(1):16-21. [15464722 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Toda C, Okamoto Y, Ueda K, Hashizume K, Itoh K, Kojima N: Unequivocal estrogen receptor-binding affinity of phthalate esters featured with ring hydroxylation and proper alkyl chain size. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Nov 1;431(1):16-21. [15464722 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Kretschmer XC, Baldwin WS: CAR and PXR: xenosensors of endocrine disrupters? Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Aug 15;155(3):111-28. [16054614 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.
Gene Name:
PPARD
Uniprot ID:
Q03181
Molecular Weight:
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes.
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular Weight:
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (By similarity). Specifically binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA).
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular Weight:
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RXRG
Uniprot ID:
P48443
Molecular Weight:
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular Weight:
17042.82 Da
References
  1. Melnick RL, Schiller CM: Mitochondrial toxicity of phthalate esters. Environ Health Perspect. 1982 Nov;45:51-6. [7140696 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
SDHA
Uniprot ID:
P31040
Molecular Weight:
72690.975 Da
References
  1. Melnick RL, Schiller CM: Mitochondrial toxicity of phthalate esters. Environ Health Perspect. 1982 Nov;45:51-6. [7140696 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21912
Molecular Weight:
31629.365 Da
References
  1. Melnick RL, Schiller CM: Mitochondrial toxicity of phthalate esters. Environ Health Perspect. 1982 Nov;45:51-6. [7140696 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular Weight:
18610.03 Da
References
  1. Melnick RL, Schiller CM: Mitochondrial toxicity of phthalate esters. Environ Health Perspect. 1982 Nov;45:51-6. [7140696 ]
General Function:
Platelet-derived growth factor binding
Specific Function:
Collagen type III occurs in most soft connective tissues along with type I collagen. Involved in regulation of cortical development. Is the major ligand of GPR56 in the developing brain and binding to GPR56 inhibits neuronal migration and activates the RhoA pathway by coupling GPR56 to GNA13 and possibly GNA12.
Gene Name:
COL3A1
Uniprot ID:
P02461
Molecular Weight:
138564.005 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_hDFCGF_CollagenIII_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Cytokine that plays an essential role in the regulation of survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and monocytes. Promotes the release of proinflammatory chemokines, and thereby plays an important role in innate immunity and in inflammatory processes. Plays an important role in the regulation of osteoclast proliferation and differentiation, the regulation of bone resorption, and is required for normal bone development. Required for normal male and female fertility. Promotes reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, regulates formation of membrane ruffles, cell adhesion and cell migration. Plays a role in lipoprotein clearance.
Gene Name:
CSF1
Uniprot ID:
P09603
Molecular Weight:
60178.885 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_SM3C_MCSF_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Converts the abundant, but inactive, zymogen plasminogen to plasmin by hydrolyzing a single Arg-Val bond in plasminogen. By controlling plasmin-mediated proteolysis, it plays an important role in tissue remodeling and degradation, in cell migration and many other physiopathological events. Plays a direct role in facilitating neuronal migration.
Gene Name:
PLAT
Uniprot ID:
P00750
Molecular Weight:
62916.495 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_BE3C_tPA_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor activity
Specific Function:
Acts as a receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Plays a role in localizing and promoting plasmin formation. Mediates the proteolysis-independent signal transduction activation effects of U-PA. It is subject to negative-feedback regulation by U-PA which cleaves it into an inactive form.
Gene Name:
PLAUR
Uniprot ID:
Q03405
Molecular Weight:
36977.62 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_SM3C_uPAR_downBioSeek
AC501.48 uMBSK_BE3C_uPAR_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.17 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Cytokine activity
Specific Function:
Produced by activated macrophages, IL-1 stimulates thymocyte proliferation by inducing IL-2 release, B-cell maturation and proliferation, and fibroblast growth factor activity. IL-1 proteins are involved in the inflammatory response, being identified as endogenous pyrogens, and are reported to stimulate the release of prostaglandin and collagenase from synovial cells.
Gene Name:
IL1A
Uniprot ID:
P01583
Molecular Weight:
30606.29 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_BE3C_IL1a_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.95 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_24CellzDirect
AC507.20 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.14 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP1A2Novascreen
AC505.88 uMCLZD_CYP1A2_24CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.92 uMCLZD_CYP1A1_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.38 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]