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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:01 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0067
Identification
Common Namebeta Endosulfan
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionEndosulfan, beta is one of two stereoisomers of endosulfan. Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide and acaricide. It is used to control insects on food and non-food crops and as a wood preservative. Due to its toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate, the use of endosulfan is banned in many areas. (7)
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Alpha-thionex
b Endosulfan
b-endosulfan
B-endosulfan-beta
b-thiodan
Beta-benzoepin
Beta-endosulfan
Beta-thiodan
Endosulfan 2
Endosulfan b
Endosulfan, beta
Endosulfan-b
β Endosulfan
Chemical FormulaC9H6Cl6O3S
Average Molecular Mass406.925 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass403.817 g/mol
CAS Registry Number33213-65-9
IUPAC Name(1R,9S)-1,9,10,11,12,12-hexachloro-4,6-dioxa-5λ⁴-thiatricyclo[7.2.1.0²,⁸]dodec-10-en-5-one
Traditional Name(1R,9S)-1,9,10,11,12,12-hexachloro-4,6-dioxa-5λ⁴-thiatricyclo[7.2.1.0²,⁸]dodec-10-en-5-one
SMILESClC1=C(Cl)[C@]2(Cl)C3COS(=O)OCC3[C@@]1(Cl)C2(Cl)Cl
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C9H6Cl6O3S/c10-5-6(11)8(13)4-2-18-19(16)17-1-3(4)7(5,12)9(8,14)15/h3-4H,1-2H2/t3?,4?,7-,8+,19?
InChI KeyInChIKey=RDYMFSUJUZBWLH-QTSFFCDANA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sulfite esters. These are organic compounds containing an organic group attached to the sulfite oxoanion, with the formula R[SO3]2-.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganic oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassOrganic sulfites
Direct ParentSulfite esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sulfite ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Chloroalkene
  • Haloalkene
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Vinyl halide
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Actin Cytoskeleton
  • Cell junction
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Cytosol
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
  • Membrane
  • Membrane Fraction
  • Microsome
  • Mitochondrial Matrix
  • Nucleolus
  • Peroxisome
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Ribosome
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  • Secretory vesicle
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
ProteasomeNot AvailableNot Available
Oxidative phosphorylationNot Availablemap00190
Ovarian SteroidogenesisNot AvailableNot Available
Cell cycleNot Availablemap04110
Antiviral AgentsNot AvailableNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceCream- to brown-colored solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point106°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.00045 mg/mL at 20 °C [BOWMAN,BT & SANS,WW (1983)]; 0.000325 mg/mL at 22 °C [TOMLIN,C (1994)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.28 g/LALOGPS
logP4.32ALOGPS
logP2.6ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area35.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity76.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability31.68 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0001900000-14803a5488f7b5642868JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0009000000-c53d9213cf67e512f24aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fy9-3019000000-b61f370914dcbdd006e0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0001900000-4a6457e8c8712884b840JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udr-1009700000-1f6854b3041bccaaf5b0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-2009000000-0d683166427dc5b15175JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (8) ; inhalation (8) ; dermal (8)
Mechanism of ToxicityEndosulfan antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions. Endosulfan also inhibits Na+ K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the CNS. This results in hyperexcitation and generalized seizures. Endosulfan is also an endocrine disruptor and acts as an agonist at the progesterone receptor and estrogen receptors. (4, 7, 8, 1, 3)
MetabolismEndosulfan is absorbed by inhalation, oral, and dermal routes of exposure. It accumulates mainly in the liver, kidney, and brain, and is metabolized to polar and nonpolar metabolites by cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Endosulfan and its metabolites, which include sulfate, diol, α-hydroxyether, lactone, and ether derivatives of endosulfan, are excreted in the urine and faeces. (8)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 18 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (5) LD50: 34 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) (5) LD50: 8 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (5) LD50: 360 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Rabbit) (5) LC50: 80 mg/m3 over 4 hours (Inhalation, Rat) (5)
Lethal Dose50 to 500 mg/kg for an adult human. (6)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesEndosulfan is used as an insecticide, acaricide, and in wood preservatives. (8)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.005 mg/kg/day (9) Chronic Oral: 0.002 mg/kg/day (9)
Health EffectsEndosulfan is a neurotoxin and damages the central nervous system, causing effects such as intermittent muscle twitching and myoclonic jerking. Endosulfan can also damage the kidneys, testes, and liver, and may possibly affect the body's ability to fight infection. It is also an endocrine disruptor and causes reproductive and developmental damage. (4, 7, 8)
SymptomsSymptoms of endosulfan poisoning include hyperactivity, hyperreflexia, tremors, dizziness, headache, convulsions, lack of coordination, staggering, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, unconsciousness. (4, 7, 8)
TreatmentTreatment is symptomatic, aimed at controlling convulsions, coma, and respiratory depression. If ingested, gastric lavage may be performed, followed by administering activated charcoal powder. (10)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6434141
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID16736499
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDEndosulfan, beta
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID8145
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0067.pdf
General References
  1. Gale WL, Patino R, Maule AG: Interaction of xenobiotics with estrogen receptors alpha and beta and a putative plasma sex hormone-binding globulin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2004 May 1;136(3):338-45. [15081833 ]
  2. Lee HK, Moon JK, Chang CH, Choi H, Park HW, Park BS, Lee HS, Hwang EC, Lee YD, Liu KH, Kim JH: Stereoselective metabolism of endosulfan by human liver microsomes and human cytochrome P450 isoforms. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Jul;34(7):1090-5. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [16581944 ]
  3. Scippo ML, Argiris C, Van De Weerdt C, Muller M, Willemsen P, Martial J, Maghuin-Rogister G: Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Feb;378(3):664-9. Epub 2003 Oct 25. [14579009 ]
  4. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  5. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  6. US Environmental Protection Agency (1985). EPA chemical profile on endosulfan.
  7. Wikipedia. Endosulfan. Last Updated 12 March 2009. [Link]
  8. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  9. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  10. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1989). Poison Information Monograph for Endosulfan. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.07 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
AC502.10 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Kretschmer XC, Baldwin WS: CAR and PXR: xenosensors of endocrine disrupters? Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Aug 15;155(3):111-28. [16054614 ]
  2. Kojima H, Sata F, Takeuchi S, Sueyoshi T, Nagai T: Comparative study of human and mouse pregnane X receptor agonistic activity in 200 pesticides using in vitro reporter gene assays. Toxicology. 2011 Feb 27;280(3):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2010.11.008. Epub 2010 Nov 27. [21115097 ]
  3. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.68 uMCLZD_ABCB1_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Bain LJ, LeBlanc GA: Interaction of structurally diverse pesticides with the human MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Nov;141(1):288-98. [8917702 ]
  2. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C2
Uniprot ID:
O75185
Molecular Weight:
103186.475 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function:
Favors the reduction of estrogens and androgens. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses preferentially NADH.
Gene Name:
HSD17B1
Uniprot ID:
P14061
Molecular Weight:
34949.715 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5048.25 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50240986
References
  1. Schuster D, Nashev LG, Kirchmair J, Laggner C, Wolber G, Langer T, Odermatt A: Discovery of nonsteroidal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors by pharmacophore-based screening of virtual compound libraries. J Med Chem. 2008 Jul 24;51(14):4188-99. doi: 10.1021/jm800054h. Epub 2008 Jun 6. [18533708 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.735 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B1
Uniprot ID:
P20020
Molecular Weight:
138754.045 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein c-terminus binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B2
Uniprot ID:
Q01814
Molecular Weight:
136875.18 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.
Gene Name:
ATP2B3
Uniprot ID:
Q16720
Molecular Weight:
134196.025 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Calcium/calmodulin-regulated and magnesium-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell (PubMed:8530416). By regulating sperm cell calcium homeostasis, may play a role in sperm motility (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ATP2B4
Uniprot ID:
P23634
Molecular Weight:
137919.03 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform A: inactive in stimulating c-Src/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone.
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98979.96 Da
References
  1. Scippo ML, Argiris C, Van De Weerdt C, Muller M, Willemsen P, Martial J, Maghuin-Rogister G: Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Feb;378(3):664-9. Epub 2003 Oct 25. [14579009 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Key regulator of striated muscle performance by acting as the major Ca(2+) ATPase responsible for the reuptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A1
Uniprot ID:
O14983
Molecular Weight:
110251.36 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
S100 protein binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle.
Gene Name:
ATP2A2
Uniprot ID:
P16615
Molecular Weight:
114755.765 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
Gene Name:
ATP2A3
Uniprot ID:
Q93084
Molecular Weight:
113976.23 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.265 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for endosulfan. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.31 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP3A5Novascreen
AC504.40 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP3A5Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis. In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner by recruiting chromatin complexes containing KMT2E/MLL5. Mediates retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis.
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular Weight:
50770.805 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.64 uMATG_RARa_TRANSAttagene
AC500.51 uMATG_RARa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor. Binds preferentially to double-stranded oligonucleotide direct repeats having the consensus half-site sequence 5'-AGGTCA-3' and 4-nt spacing (DR-4). Regulates cholesterol uptake through MYLIP-dependent ubiquitination of LDLR, VLDLR and LRP8; DLDLR and LRP8. Interplays functionally with RORA for the regulation of genes involved in liver metabolism (By similarity). Exhibits a ligand-dependent transcriptional activation activity (PubMed:25661920).
Gene Name:
NR1H2
Uniprot ID:
P55055
Molecular Weight:
50973.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.93 uMNCGC_LXR_AgonistNCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.75 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
AC5010.00 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.93 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
AC507.80 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
AC503.27 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.57 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_6CellzDirect
AC506.45 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_6CellzDirect
AC505.15 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.
Gene Name:
SULT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q06520
Molecular Weight:
33779.57 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.35 uMCLZD_SULT2A1_6CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]