Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-03-06 11:58:01 -0700
Update Date2014-10-20 10:24:24 -0600
Accession NumberT3D0071
Identification
Common NameToluene
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionToluene is found in allspice. Toluene is isolated from distilled tolu balsam (Myroxylon balsamum). Minor constituent of lime oil (Citrus aurantifolia).Toluene, formerly known as toluol, is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners. It is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely used as an industrial feedstock and as a solvent. (Wikipedia) Toluene has been shown to exhibit beta-oxidant, depressant, hepatoprotective, anesthetic and neurotransmitter functions (3, 4, 5, 6, 7).
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Cosmetic Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial Precursor/Intermediate
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Solvent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Methyl-Benzene
Methylbenzene
Methylbenzol
Monomethyl benzene
Phenyl-Methane
Phenylmethane
Toluol
Chemical FormulaC7H8
Average Molecular Mass92.138 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass92.063 g/mol
CAS Registry Number108-88-3
IUPAC Nametoluene
Traditional Nametoluene
SMILESCC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H8/c1-7-5-3-2-4-6-7/h2-6H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=YXFVVABEGXRONW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and Substituted Derivatives
Sub ClassToluenes
Direct ParentToluenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Toluene
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon
Molecular FrameworkAromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
External Descriptors
  • An Aromatic Compound (metacyc)
  • Toluenes (chebi)
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-95°C
Boiling Point110.6°C (231.1°F)
Solubility0.526 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP2.73
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.508ALOGPS
logP2.56ALOGPS
logP2.49ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity31.1 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability10.97 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS1D NMR
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (14) ; inhalation (14) ; dermal (14)
Mechanism of ToxicityToluene is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismInhalation and ingestion are the primary routes of exposure, though toluene may also be absorbed through the skin. It accumulates rapidly in the brain and is subsequently deposited in other tissues according to their lipid content, with the highest levels attained in adipose tissue. The primary initial steps in toluene metabolism is side-chain hydroxylation catalyzed predominately by the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2E1, followed by oxidation to benzoic acid. Most of the benzoic acid is then conjugated with glycine to form hippuric acid, but a small portion can be conjugated with UDP-glucuronate to form the acyl-glucuronide. A very small portion of absorbed toluene can be converted by CYP1A2, CYP2B2, or CYP2E1 to ortho- or para-cresol. These metabolites are excreted in the urine, and the remaining toluene is exhaled unchanged. (8, 14)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 5000 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (9) LD50: 1332 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (9) LD50: 1960 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (9) LD50: 2250 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (9) LD50: 12 124 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (9) LC50: 400 ppm over 24 hours (Inhalation, Mouse) (9)
Lethal Dose50 mg/kg for an adult human. (10)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (13)
Uses/SourcesToluene is used in paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, adhesives, and rubber and in some printing and leather tanning processes. Gasoline, which contains 5 to 7 perfect toluene by weight, is the largest source of atmospheric emissions and exposure of the general populace. (8, 14)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Inhalation: 1 ppm (12) Chronic Inhalation: 0.08 ppm (12) Acute Oral: 0.8 mg/kg/day (12) Intermediate Oral: 0.02 mg/kg/day (12)
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsThe central nervous system is the primary target organ of toluene and other alkylbenzenes. Manifestations of exposure range from slight dizziness and headache to unconciousness, respiratory depression and death. Other symptoms include tiredness, confusion, weakness, memory loss, nausea, loss of appetite, and hearing and color vision loss. These symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped. (8, 14)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
CompoundBiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionDetails
Toluene BloodDetected and Quantified0.00160 (0.00144-0.00177) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal Details
Toluene BloodDetected and Quantified0.00119 (0.00106-0.00132) uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal Details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01900
HMDB IDHMDB34168
PubChem Compound ID1140
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL9113
ChemSpider ID1108
KEGG IDC01455
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17578
BioCyc IDCPD-616
CTD IDD014050
Stitch IDToluene
PDB IDMBN
ACToR ID1391
Wikipedia LinkToluene
References
Synthesis Reference

Gregoire Kalopissis, Andree Bugaut, “2-Carbamylmethyl-or (diethylcarbamyl)methyl-amino-4-hydroxy toluene and process for preparing the same.” U.S. Patent US4101576, issued August, 1905.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Horowitz Y, Greenberg D, Ling G, Lifshitz M: Acrodynia: a case report of two siblings. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Jun;86(6):453. [12023189 ]
  2. Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY, Millan-Perez Pena L, Salinas-Stefanon EM: Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;140(4):653-60. [14534149 ]
  3. Biegert T, Fuchs G, Heider J: Evidence that anaerobic oxidation of toluene in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica is initiated by formation of benzylsuccinate from toluene and fumarate. Eur J Biochem. 1996 Jun 15;238(3):661-8. [8706665 ]
  4. Hougaard KS, Hansen AM, Hass U, Lund SP: Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003 Mar;92(3):148-52. [12753431 ]
  5. Tas U, Ogeturk M, Meydan S, Kus I, Kuloglu T, Ilhan N, Kose E, Sarsilmaz M: Hepatotoxic activity of toluene inhalation and protective role of melatonin. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011 Jun;27(5):465-73. doi: 10.1177/0748233710389853. Epub 2011 Feb 22. [21343225 ]
  6. Aono J, Takimoto E, Komatsu T, Takeda A, Ueda W, Hirakawa M: [Anesthetic care of a patient intoxicated with thinner]. Masui. 1990 Mar;39(3):388-90. [2345401 ]
  7. Win-Shwe TT, Mitsushima D, Nakajima D, Ahmed S, Yamamoto S, Tsukahara S, Kakeyama M, Goto S, Fujimaki H: Toluene induces rapid and reversible rise of hippocampal glutamate and taurine neurotransmitter levels in mice. Toxicol Lett. 2007 Jan 10;168(1):75-82. Epub 2006 Dec 4. [17145141 ]
  8. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  9. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  10. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2002). RTECS: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
  11. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  12. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  13. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  14. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for toluene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Lipid transport and metabolism
Specific Function:
Rapidly hydrolyzes choline released into the synapse
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67797.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC504.9 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50008558
References
  1. Cardozo MG, Iimura Y, Sugimoto H, Yamanishi Y, Hopfinger AJ: QSAR analyses of the substituted indanone and benzylpiperidine rings of a series of indanone-benzylpiperidine inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. J Med Chem. 1992 Feb 7;35(3):584-9. [1738151 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51802.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51340.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55165.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61641.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52147.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51035.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54235.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
54607.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54116.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.8 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.2 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.5 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in benzodiazepine receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.8 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.2 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone
Gene Name:
GABRP
Uniprot ID:
O00591
Molecular Weight:
50639.7 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in GABA-A receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55258.0 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.4 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity)
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in chloride channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.9 Da
References
  1. Meulenberg CJ, Vijverberg HP: Selective inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in human IMR-32 cells by low concentrations of toluene. Toxicology. 2003 Aug 28;190(3):243-8. [12927378 ]
General Function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors
Gene Name:
GRIN1
Uniprot ID:
Q05586
Molecular Weight:
105374.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT, Benignus VA, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Boyes WK: Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):159-66. Epub 2007 Apr 9. [17420219 ]
General Function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular Weight:
165284.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT, Benignus VA, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Boyes WK: Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):159-66. Epub 2007 Apr 9. [17420219 ]
General Function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID:
Q13224
Molecular Weight:
166369.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT, Benignus VA, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Boyes WK: Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):159-66. Epub 2007 Apr 9. [17420219 ]
General Function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN2C
Uniprot ID:
Q14957
Molecular Weight:
134241.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT, Benignus VA, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Boyes WK: Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):159-66. Epub 2007 Apr 9. [17420219 ]
General Function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN2D
Uniprot ID:
O15399
Molecular Weight:
143561.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT, Benignus VA, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Boyes WK: Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):159-66. Epub 2007 Apr 9. [17420219 ]
General Function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125597.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT, Benignus VA, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Boyes WK: Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):159-66. Epub 2007 Apr 9. [17420219 ]
General Function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine
Gene Name:
GRIN3B
Uniprot ID:
O60391
Molecular Weight:
112993.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Jackson MD, Krantz QT, Benignus VA, Bushnell PJ, Shafer TJ, Boyes WK: Evaluating the NMDA-glutamate receptor as a site of action for toluene, in vivo. Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):159-66. Epub 2007 Apr 9. [17420219 ]
General Function:
Involved in neurotransmitter receptor activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular Weight:
59736.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the abused solvent, toluene. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;137(3):375-83. [12237258 ]
General Function:
Involved in neurotransmitter receptor activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69958.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the abused solvent, toluene. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;137(3):375-83. [12237258 ]
General Function:
Involved in acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNA5
Uniprot ID:
P30532
Molecular Weight:
53054.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the abused solvent, toluene. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;137(3):375-83. [12237258 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56450.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the abused solvent, toluene. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;137(3):375-83. [12237258 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular Weight:
54781.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the abused solvent, toluene. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;137(3):375-83. [12237258 ]
General Function:
Involved in neurotransmitter receptor activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNB2
Uniprot ID:
P17787
Molecular Weight:
57020.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the abused solvent, toluene. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;137(3):375-83. [12237258 ]
General Function:
Involved in acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNB4
Uniprot ID:
P30926
Molecular Weight:
56379.0 Da
References
  1. Bale AS, Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by the abused solvent, toluene. Br J Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;137(3):375-83. [12237258 ]
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in the electrocardiogram
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
227165.0 Da
References
  1. Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY, Millan-Perez Pena L, Salinas-Stefanon EM: Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;140(4):653-60. [14534149 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons
Gene Name:
SCN1B
Uniprot ID:
Q07699
Molecular Weight:
24707.0 Da
References
  1. Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY, Millan-Perez Pena L, Salinas-Stefanon EM: Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;140(4):653-60. [14534149 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific Function:
Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity)
Gene Name:
SCN2B
Uniprot ID:
O60939
Molecular Weight:
24325.7 Da
References
  1. Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY, Millan-Perez Pena L, Salinas-Stefanon EM: Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;140(4):653-60. [14534149 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity)
Gene Name:
SCN3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY72
Molecular Weight:
24702.1 Da
References
  1. Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY, Millan-Perez Pena L, Salinas-Stefanon EM: Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;140(4):653-60. [14534149 ]
General Function:
Involved in sodium ion binding
Specific Function:
Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation (By similarity)
Gene Name:
SCN4B
Uniprot ID:
Q8IWT1
Molecular Weight:
24968.8 Da
References
  1. Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY, Millan-Perez Pena L, Salinas-Stefanon EM: Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;140(4):653-60. [14534149 ]