Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:04 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:06 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0096
Identification
Common NameEthion
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionEthion is an organophosphate pesticide. It does not occur naturally in the environment. Ethion is used in agriculture, mainly to control insects on citrus trees, but also on cotton, fruit and nut trees, and some vegetables. It may also be used on lawns and turf grasses, but it is not used in the home for pest control. Ethion affects the nervous systems by inhibiting acetylcholineserases. (1)
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Organophosphate
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Bis(s-(diethoxyphosphinothioyl)mercapto)methane
Diethion
Embathion
Ethanox
Ethiol
Ethodan
Ethopaz
Ethyl methylene phosphorodithioate
Fosfatox e
Fosfono 50
Hylemax
Hylemox
Itopaz
O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl S,S'-methanediyl bis(dithiophosphate)
O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl S,S'-methylene bis(dithiophosphate)
O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl S,S'-methylene bisphosphorodithioate
O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl S,S'-methylene di(phosphorodithioate)
O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl S,S'-methylenebis(phosphorodithioate)
O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl S,S'-methylenebisphosphordithioate
O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl-S,S'-methylene di(phosphorodithioate)
O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl-S,S'-methylenebisphosphorodithioate
O,O,O,O-tetraethyl S,S'-methylenebis(dithiophosphate)
Phosphotox e
Rhodiacide
Rhodocide
Rodocid
Rodocide
RP-thion
S,S'-methylene bis(o,o-diethyl phosphorodithioate)
S,S'-methylene O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl di(phosphorodithioate)
S,S'-methylene O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl phosphorodithioate
Soprathion
Tetraethyl S,S'-methylene bis(phosphorothiolothionate)
Trecator-SC
Vegfru fosmite
Vegfru-fosmite
Chemical FormulaC9H22O4P2S4
Average Molecular Mass384.476 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass383.988 g/mol
CAS Registry Number563-12-2
IUPAC NameO,O-diethyl [({[diethoxy(sulfanylidene)-λ⁵-phosphanyl]sulfanyl}methyl)sulfanyl]phosphonothioate
Traditional NameO,O-diethyl ({[diethoxy(sulfanylidene)-λ⁵-phosphanyl]sulfanyl}methyl)sulfanylphosphonothioate
SMILESCCOP(=S)(OCC)SCSP(=S)(OCC)OCC
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H22O4P2S4/c1-5-10-14(16,11-6-2)18-9-19-15(17,12-7-3)13-8-4/h5-9H2,1-4H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=RIZMRRKBZQXFOY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dithiophosphate o-esters. These are o-ester derivatives of dithiophosphates, with the general structure RSP(O)(O)=S (R = organyl group).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic dithiophosphoric acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDithiophosphate O-esters
Direct ParentDithiophosphate O-esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dithiophosphate o-ester
  • Dithiophosphate s-ester
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Organothiophosphorus compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearancePure ethion is a clear to yellowish liquid with an unpleasant sulfur-like smell.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-13°C
Boiling Point165 °C at 0.3 mm Hg
Solubility0.002 mg/mL at 25 °C [SHIU,WY et al.(1990)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0021 g/LALOGPS
logP4.74ALOGPS
logP3.93ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area36.92 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity97.25 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.11 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-1894000000-47c6391b2b69dca9754dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0fmj-0911000000-57efcef02f9a486a21c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fc1-7910000000-3a107354a7516b2494a4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0f89-0409000000-650678c2715999d47b1aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0f89-0579000000-6f45f71aff73fce1fc62View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0btc-0159000000-5c5a03c8f28eda995617View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-7971000000-2c3388c23fc41590f253View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (1) ; inhalation (1) ; dermal (1)
Mechanism of ToxicityEthion is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismMetabolism of organophosphates occurs principally by oxidation, by hydrolysis via esterases and by reaction with glutathione. Demethylation and glucuronidation may also occur. Oxidation of organophosphorus pesticides may result in moderately toxic products. In general, phosphorothioates are not directly toxic but require oxidative metabolism to the proximal toxin. The glutathione transferase reactions produce products that are, in most cases, of low toxicity. Paraoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of organophosphate exposure.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesEthion enters the air, water, and soil during its manufacture and use. It is not known if ethion levels can build up in plants or fish. Chemical plant workers, transport workers, and pesticide applicators are the major occupational groups that might be exposed to ethion. The general population may be exposed to very small amounts of ethion by eating or drinking. People living near hazardous waste sites containing ethion or near its manufacturing, processing, or storage facilities could potentially be exposed. (1)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsExposure to high levels of ethion can cause nausea, sweating, diarrhea, loss of bladder control, blurring or dimness of vision, muscle tremors, and labored breathing. Severe poisoning may result in coma, inability to breathe, and death. (1)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID3286
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1713417
ChemSpider ID3171
KEGG IDC18725
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID38663
BioCyc IDALPHA-METHYLMETHIONINE
CTD IDC100038
Stitch IDEthion
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6440
Wikipedia LinkEthion
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0096.pdf
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for ethion.U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.41 uMATG_PXR_TRANSAttagene
AC500.43 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Kojima H, Sata F, Takeuchi S, Sueyoshi T, Nagai T: Comparative study of human and mouse pregnane X receptor agonistic activity in 200 pesticides using in vitro reporter gene assays. Toxicology. 2011 Feb 27;280(3):77-87. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2010.11.008. Epub 2010 Nov 27. [21115097 ]
  2. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.02 uMNVS_ENZ_hES_ActivatorNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital responsive element module of the human CYP2B6 gene and the CYP3A4 xenobiotic response element.
Gene Name:
NR1I3
Uniprot ID:
Q14994
Molecular Weight:
39942.145 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.31 uMATG_CAR_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B/WSTF which mediates the interaction with acetylated histones, an essential step for VDR-promoter association. Plays a central role in calcium homeostasis.
Gene Name:
VDR
Uniprot ID:
P11473
Molecular Weight:
48288.64 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.27 uMATG_VDRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) through the induction of NR0B2 or FGF19 expression, via two distinct mechanisms. Activates the intestinal bile acid-binding protein (IBABP). Activates the transcription of bile salt export pump ABCB11 by directly recruiting histone methyltransferase CARM1 to this locus.
Gene Name:
NR1H4
Uniprot ID:
Q96RI1
Molecular Weight:
55913.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.33 uMOT_SRC1_SRC1FXR_0480Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.05 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.20 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor. Binds preferentially to double-stranded oligonucleotide direct repeats having the consensus half-site sequence 5'-AGGTCA-3' and 4-nt spacing (DR-4). Regulates cholesterol uptake through MYLIP-dependent ubiquitination of LDLR, VLDLR and LRP8; DLDLR and LRP8. Interplays functionally with RORA for the regulation of genes involved in liver metabolism (By similarity). Exhibits a ligand-dependent transcriptional activation activity (PubMed:25661920).
Gene Name:
NR1H2
Uniprot ID:
P55055
Molecular Weight:
50973.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.83 uMATG_LXRb_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor. Interaction with RXR shifts RXR from its role as a silent DNA-binding partner to an active ligand-binding subunit in mediating retinoid responses through target genes defined by LXRES. LXRES are DR4-type response elements characterized by direct repeats of two similar hexanuclotide half-sites spaced by four nucleotides. Plays an important role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, regulating cholesterol uptake through MYLIP-dependent ubiquitination of LDLR, VLDLR and LRP8. Interplays functionally with RORA for the regulation of genes involved in liver metabolism (By similarity). Exhibits a ligand-dependent transcriptional activation activity (PubMed:25661920).
Gene Name:
NR1H3
Uniprot ID:
Q13133
Molecular Weight:
50395.34 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.67 uMATG_LXRa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.87 uMOT_ER_ERaERb_0480Odyssey Thera
AC509.87 uMOT_ER_ERaERb_1440Odyssey Thera
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]