Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:05 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:07 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0106
Identification
Common NameRadium-228
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionRadium is a radioactive chemical element which has the symbol Ra and atomic number 88. Its appearance is almost pure white, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, turning black. Radium is an alkaline earth metal that is formed when uranium and thorium break down in the environment. It is extremely radioactive. Radium has been used as a radiation source for treating cancer, in radiography of metals, and combined with other metals as a neutron source for research and radiation instrument calibration. Until the 1960s, radium was a component of the luminous paints used for watch and clock dials, instrument panels in airplanes, military instruments, and compasses. (2, 3)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Radioactive
  • Radioactive Isotope
  • Radium Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
228Ra
Mesothorium
Mesothorium 1
Radium 228
Radium, isotope of mass 228
Chemical FormulaRa
Average Molecular Mass228.031 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass228.031 g/mol
CAS Registry Number15262-20-1
IUPAC Name(²²⁸Ra)radium
Traditional Name(²²⁸Ra)radium
SMILES[228Ra]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Ra/i1+2
InChI KeyInChIKey=HCWPIIXVSYCSAN-NJFSPNSNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Oral (2) ; Inhalation (2) ; Dermal (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityIonizing radiation produced by radium damages the DNA, resulting in gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This can both initiate and promote carcinogenesis, and interfere with reproduction and development. Since radium`s similarity to calcium allows it to deposit in the bones, bone cancer is of particular risk. (3)
MetabolismDue to its radioactivity, radium can affect the body following ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. If inhalated, it may accumulate in the lungs. Once in the body radium may deposit in the bones, mainly on the surface and areas where new bone is being formed. Radium is not metabolized and is excreted primarily in the faeces. (3)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (1)
Uses/SourcesRadium has been used as a radiation source for treating cancer, in radiography of metals, and combined with other metals as a neutron source for research and radiation instrument calibration. Until the 1960s, radium was a component of the luminous paints used for watch and clock dials, instrument panels in airplanes, military instruments, and compasses. (3)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsRadium is highly radioactive and its decay product, radon gas, is also radioactive. It has been shown to cause effects on the blood (anemia) and eyes (cataracts). Inhalation, injection, ingestion or body exposure to radium can cause cancer and other disorders, due to its radioactivity. Since radium is chemically similar to calcium, it has the potential to cause great harm by replacing it in bones, and bone cancer is of particular risk. (2, 3)
SymptomsExposure to high doses of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome, which can cause skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation, low blood pressure, headache, fatigue, weakness, fever, birth defects, illness, infection, and death. (5, 4)
TreatmentTreatment reversing the effects of irradiation is currently not possible. Anaesthetics and antiemetics are administered to counter the symptoms of exposure, as well as antibiotics for countering secondary infections due to the resulting immune system deficiency. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6328553
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4886617
KEGG IDC16457
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDRadium-228
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0106.pdf
General References
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  2. Wikipedia. Radium. Last Updated 24 June 2009. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1990). Toxicological profile for radium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Radiation poisoning. Last Updated 22 August 2009. [Link]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1990). Toxicological profile for radium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]