Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:07 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:10 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0126
Identification
Common NamePlutonium
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPlutonium is an element with the symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is a rare transuranic radioactive element that normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation states. It is also a radioactive poison that accumulates in bone marrow. (3)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Plutonium Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Radioactive
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(9)4Pu
94Pu
Plutonio
Plutonium, ion
Plutonium, ion(4+)
Pu
Chemical FormulaPu
Average Molecular Mass244.000 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass244.000 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7440-07-5
IUPAC Nameplutonium
Traditional Nameplutonium
SMILES[Pu]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Pu
InChI KeyInChIKey=OYEHPCDNVJXUIW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous actinide compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous actinide compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous actinide compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous actinide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearancePlutonium is a solid metal. It has a bright silvery appearance at first, much like nickel, but it oxidizes very quickly to a dull gray, although yellow and olive green are also reported. (3)
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point912.5°K (639.4°C, 1182.9°F)
Boiling Point3505 K (3228 °C, 5842 °F)
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-3e228917de618e678df1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-3e228917de618e678df1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-3e228917de618e678df1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-7d39ee3442df3fef5b77View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-7d39ee3442df3fef5b77View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-7d39ee3442df3fef5b77View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe alpha radiation plutonium emits does not penetrate the skin but can irradiate internal organs when plutonium is inhaled or ingested. Particularly at risk are the skeleton, where it is likely to be absorbed by the bone surface, and the liver, where it collects and becomes concentrated. The ionizing radiation produced by plutonium causes cellular damage that includes DNA breakage, accurate or inaccurate repair, apoptosis, gene mutations, chromosomal change, and genetic instability. This leads to loss of normal cell and tissue homeostasis, and development of malignancy. Ionizing radiation that does not directly damage DNA can produce reactive oxygen intermediates that directly affect the stability of p53, an important enzyme in cell-cycle regulation, and produce oxidative damage to individual bases in DNA and point mutations by mispairing during DNA replication. (2, 4)
MetabolismPlutonium-238 can affect the body following ingestion or inhalation. When inhaled, Pu-239 tends to accumulate in the lungs, though it also distributes to the liver and skeleton. Ingested plutonium is found in the liver and bone. Plutonium metabolism consists primarily of hydrolytic reactions and formation of complexes with protein and nonprotein ligands, such as albumin, globulins, ferritin, citrate, and lactate. Plutonium is excreted in feces and urine. (4)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (1)
Uses/SourcesIn nature, plutonium is only found in trace quantities. Artificially, Pu-238 and Pu-239 are synthesized by bombarding uranium-238 with deuterons and neutrons, respectively. Plutonium is used in explosives and the isotope Pu-239 is a key fissile component in nuclear weapons. Plutonium is also a source of power and heat; for example in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and radioisotope heater units, artificial heart pacemakers, or supplemental heat providing to scuba diving. (3)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPlutonium's radioactivity can cause cancers of the bone, liver, and lungs if ingested or inhaled. Large amounts may also cause acute radiation poisoning. (3)
SymptomsExposure to high doses of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome, which can cause skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation, low blood pressure, headache, fatigue, weakness, fever, birth defects, illness, infection, and death. (2, 5)
TreatmentTreatment reversing the effects of irradiation is currently not possible. Anaesthetics and antiemetics are administered to counter the symptoms of exposure, as well as antibiotics for countering secondary infections due to the resulting immune system deficiency. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID23940
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID22382
KEGG IDC19159
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID33388
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDD011005
Stitch IDPlutonium
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPlutonium
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0126.pdf
General References
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Plutonium. Last Updated 18 August 2009. [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for plutonium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Radiation poisoning. Last Updated 22 August 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2003). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for barium sulfide. [Link]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]