Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:08 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:10 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0129
Identification
Common NameAmericium-241
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAmericium is a synthetic element that has the symbol Am and atomic number 95. It is a radioactive metallic element of the actinide series. Eighteen radioisotopes of americium, with mass number from 231 to 249, have been characterized. The most used isotope is Am-241 because it is easiest to produce. Americium is widely used in commercial ionization-chamber smoke detectors as well as in neutron sources and industrial gauges. Americium emits alpha and gamma radiation, which represents a serious health hazard. (2)
Compound Type
  • Americium Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Pollutant
  • Radioactive
  • Radioactive Isotope
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(241)Am
241Am
Americium 241
Americium, isotope of mass 241
Chemical FormulaAm
Average Molecular Mass241.057 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass241.057 g/mol
CAS Registry Number86954-36-1
IUPAC Name(²⁴¹Am)americium
Traditional Name(²⁴¹Am)americium
SMILES[241Am]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Am/i1-2
InChI KeyInChIKey=LXQXZNRPTYVCNG-YPZZEJLDSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as homogeneous actinide compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
Sub ClassHomogeneous actinide compounds
Direct ParentHomogeneous actinide compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous actinide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-f2f8bc4e7c7af9384c95View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-f2f8bc4e7c7af9384c95View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-f2f8bc4e7c7af9384c95View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-db920c4a8fe46e25a908View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-db920c4a8fe46e25a908View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-db920c4a8fe46e25a908View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ;Inhalation (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityAmericium toxicity results primarily from the damage done by the alpha particle emitted during radioactive decay. This alpha particle has very limited penetration in tissue, and hence, the cellular damage occurs only in the immediate vicinity of the sequestered americium. The ionizing radiation produced by americium causes cellular damage that includes DNA breakage, accurate or inaccurate repair, apoptosis, gene mutations, chromosomal change, and genetic instability. This leads to loss of normal cell and tissue homeostasis, and development of malignancy. Ionizing radiation that does not directly damage DNA can produce reactive oxygen intermediates that directly affect the stability of p53, an important enzyme in cell-cycle regulation, and produce oxidative damage to individual bases in DNA and point mutations by mispairing during DNA replication. (3)
MetabolismAmericium can be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure. In the body it distributes primarily to the liver, as well as to the bone and skeletal muscle. The metabolism of americium involves binding interactions with proteins and probably complex formation with various inorganic anions, such as carbonate and phosphate, and carboxylic acids, such as citrate and lactate. Americium is excreted in faeces and urine. (4)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (6)
Uses/SourcesAmericium is widely used in commercial ionization-chamber smoke detectors as well as in neutron sources and industrial gauges. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Radiation: 4 mSv (1) Chronic Radiation: 1 mSv/yr (1)
Health EffectsAmericium's radioactivity can cause cancer, especially of the bone, where it is known to accumulate. Exposure to large amount of americium may also damage the lungs, liver, and thyroid. (4)
SymptomsExposure to high doses of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome, which can cause skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation, low blood pressure, headache, fatigue, weakness, fever, birth defects, illness, infection, and death. (3, 5)
TreatmentTreatment reversing the effects of irradiation is currently not possible. Anaesthetics and antiemetics are administered to counter the symptoms of exposure, as well as antibiotics for countering secondary infections due to the resulting immune system deficiency. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID104726
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID94543
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAmericium-241
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0129.pdf
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. Wikipedia. Americium. Last Updated 25 June 2009. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for americium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Radiation poisoning. Last Updated 22 August 2009. [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]