Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:08 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:11 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0134
Identification
Common NameTributyltin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionTributyltin is an organotin compound. Tributyltins are the main active ingredients in certain biocides used to control a broad spectrum of organisms, and are also used in wood preservation, marine paints (as antifouling pesticides), and textiles and industrial water systems (as antifungal agents). They also considered moderately to highly persistent organic pollutants and are especially hazardous to marine ecosystems. The main toxic component of tributyltins is tin. Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a natural component of the earth's crust and is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as tin dioxide. (3, 5, 4)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Organic Compound
  • Organometallic
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
  • Tin Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
TBT
Tin tributyl hydride
Tri-n-butyl tin maleate
Tri-n-butylstannane hydride
Tri-n-butyltin
Tributyl tin
Tributylstannane
Tributylstannic hydride
Tributyltin hydride
Tributyltin ion
Tributyltin ion (1+)
Chemical FormulaC12H28Sn
Average Molecular Mass291.060 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass292.121 g/mol
CAS Registry Number688-73-3
IUPAC Nametributylstannyl
Traditional Nametributylstannanyl
SMILESCCCC[SnH](CCCC)CCCC
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/3C4H9.Sn.H/c3*1-3-4-2;;/h3*1,3-4H2,2H3;;
InChI KeyInChIKey=DBGVGMSCBYYSLD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as trialkyltins. These are triorganotin compounds where the tin atom is linked to exactly three alkyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganometallic compounds
ClassOrgano-post-transition metal compounds
Sub ClassOrganotin compounds
Direct ParentTrialkyltins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Trialkyltin
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Actin Cytoskeleton
  • Actin Filament
  • Cell junction
  • Cell surface
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Cytosol
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Extracellular
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosome
  • Membrane
  • Microsome
  • Mitochondrial Membrane
  • Mitochondrion
  • Nuclear Membrane
  • Peroxisome
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  • Secretory Granule
  • Secretory vesicle
  • Soluble Fraction
  • Synaptic Vesicle
  • Zymogen Granule
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
ApoptosisNot Availablemap04210
Oxidative phosphorylationNot Availablemap00190
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023 map00100
Osteoclast differentiationNot Availablemap04380
Nucleotide Excision RepairSMP00478 map03420
Steroid hormone biosynthesisNot Availablemap00140
Cell cycleNot Availablemap04110
Base excision repairNot Availablemap03410
Rna degradationNot Availablemap03018
ProteasomeNot AvailableNot Available
PenicillinsNot AvailableNot Available
Gastric acid secretionNot Availablemap04971
Fatty acid MetabolismSMP00051 map00071
EicosanoidsNot AvailableNot Available
Degradation Of Aromatic CompoundsNot AvailableNot Available
Abc transportersNot Availablemap02010
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling Point80 °C at 4.00E-01 mm Hg
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.088 g/LALOGPS
logP6.17ALOGPS
logP3.53ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity58.42 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability27.18 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0090000000-be2374c25452069674fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-0090000000-be2374c25452069674fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-0090000000-be2374c25452069674fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-de3aec4a0b11a23def54View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-de3aec4a0b11a23def54View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-0090000000-de3aec4a0b11a23def54View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4) ; dermal(4)
Mechanism of ToxicityOrganotin compounds produce neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Organotins may directly activate glial cells contributing to neuronal cell degeneration by local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and/or interleukins. They may also induce apoptosis by direct action on neuronal cells. Organotin compounds stimulate the neuronal release of and/or decrease of neuronal cell uptake of neurotransmitters in brain tissue, including aspartate, GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin. This may be either a contributing factor to or result of the neuronal cell loss. The immunotoxic effects of organotins are characterized by thymic atrophy caused by the suppression of proliferation of immature thymocytes and apoptosis of mature thymocytes. Organotin compounds are believed to exert these effects by suppressing DNA and protein synthesis, inducing the expression of genes involved in apoptosis (such as nur77), and disrupting the regulation of intracellular calcium levels, giving rise to the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species, release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and the proteolytic and nucleolytic cascade of apoptosis. The suppression of proliferation of immature thymocytes further results in the suppression of T-cell-mediated immune responses. Organotins are also endocrine disruptors and are believed to contribute to obesity by inappropriate receptor activation, leading to adipocyte differentiation. Inorganic tin triggers eryptosis, contributing to tin-induced anemia. (4, 1, 2)
MetabolismOrganotin compounds are readily absorbed via oral, inhalation, or dermal routes. Tin may enter the bloodstream and bind to hemoglobin, where it is distributed and accumulates mainly in the kidney, liver, lung, and bone. Organotin compounds may undergo dealkylation, hydroxylation, dearylation, and oxidation catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the liver. Dealkylation of butyltin compounds produces di- and monobutyltin compounds, while oxidation of butyltin compounds produces the 3-hydroxybutyl, 4-hydroxybutyl, 3-oxobutyl, and 3-carboxy metabolites. The alkyl products of dealkylation are conjugated with glutathione and further metabolized to mercapturic acid derivatives. Tin and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine and feces. (4)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesTributyltins are the main active ingredients in certain biocides used to control a broad spectrum of organisms, and are also used in wood preservation, marine paints (as antifouling pesticides), and textiles and industrial water systems (as antifungal agents). (3)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsBreathing or swallowing, or skin contact with organotins, can interfere with the way the brain and nervous system work, causing death in severe cases. Organic tin compounds may also damage the immune and reproductive system. (3, 4)
SymptomsInorganic or organic tin compounds placed on the skin or in the eyes can produce skin and eye irritation. (4)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB08601
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID3032732
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID26583278
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID27086
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC011559
Stitch IDTributyltin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTributyltin
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0134.pdf
General References
  1. Nguyen TT, Foller M, Lang F: Tin triggers suicidal death of erythrocytes. J Appl Toxicol. 2009 Jan;29(1):79-83. doi: 10.1002/jat.1390. [18937211 ]
  2. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
  3. Wikipedia. Tributyltin. Last Updated 31 May 2009. [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for tin. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Tin. Last Updated 28 May 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes.
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular Weight:
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  2. Nakanishi T, Nishikawa J, Hiromori Y, Yokoyama H, Koyanagi M, Takasuga S, Ishizaki J, Watanabe M, Isa S, Utoguchi N, Itoh N, Kohno Y, Nishihara T, Tanaka K: Trialkyltin compounds bind retinoid X receptor to alter human placental endocrine functions. Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Oct;19(10):2502-16. Epub 2005 Jun 7. [15941851 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular Weight:
39858.37 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular Weight:
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular Weight:
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular Weight:
40221.335 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular Weight:
39088.335 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular Weight:
41480.985 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular Weight:
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Sharan S, Nikhil K, Roy P: Effects of low dose treatment of tributyltin on the regulation of estrogen receptor functions in MCF-7 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 Jun 1;269(2):176-86. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2013.03.009. Epub 2013 Mar 21. [23523586 ]
General Function:
Transcription coactivator activity
Specific Function:
Transcriptional coactivator for steroid receptors and nuclear receptors. Coactivator of the steroid binding domain (AF-2) but not of the modulating N-terminal domain (AF-1). Required with NCOA1 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Critical regulator of glucose metabolism regulation, acts as RORA coactivator to specifically modulate G6PC expression. Involved in the positive regulation of the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 by sumoylation enhancer RWDD3. Positively regulates the circadian clock by acting as a transcriptional coactivator for the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NCOA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15596
Molecular Weight:
159155.645 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
General Function:
Threonine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. This unit is responsible of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome and is one of the principal target of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. May catalyze basal processing of intracellular antigens. Plays a role in the protection against oxidative damage through the Nrf2-ARE pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PSMB5
Uniprot ID:
P28074
Molecular Weight:
28480.01 Da
References
  1. Shi G, Chen D, Zhai G, Chen MS, Cui QC, Zhou Q, He B, Dou QP, Jiang G: The proteasome is a molecular target of environmental toxic organotins. Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Mar;117(3):379-86. doi: 10.1289/ehp.11865. Epub 2008 Oct 23. [19337512 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis. In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner by recruiting chromatin complexes containing KMT2E/MLL5. Mediates retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis.
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular Weight:
50770.805 Da
References
  1. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence or presence of hormone ligand, acts mainly as an activator of gene expression due to weak binding to corepressors. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function.
Gene Name:
RARB
Uniprot ID:
P10826
Molecular Weight:
50488.63 Da
References
  1. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, acts mainly as an activator of gene expression due to weak binding to corepressors. Required for limb bud development. In concert with RARA or RARB, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RARG
Uniprot ID:
P13631
Molecular Weight:
50341.405 Da
References
  1. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.
Gene Name:
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID:
Q16881
Molecular Weight:
70905.58 Da
References
  1. Bragadin M, Scutari G, Folda A, Bindoli A, Rigobello MP: Effect of metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase and the regulation of mitochondrial permeability conditions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:348-54. [15659816 ]
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.
Gene Name:
TXNRD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NNW7
Molecular Weight:
56506.275 Da
References
  1. Bragadin M, Scutari G, Folda A, Bindoli A, Rigobello MP: Effect of metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase and the regulation of mitochondrial permeability conditions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:348-54. [15659816 ]
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Displays thioredoxin reductase, glutaredoxin and glutathione reductase activities. Catalyzes disulfide bond isomerization. Promotes disulfide bond formation between GPX4 and various sperm proteins and may play a role in sperm maturation by promoting formation of sperm structural components (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TXNRD3
Uniprot ID:
Q86VQ6
Molecular Weight:
70682.52 Da
References
  1. Bragadin M, Scutari G, Folda A, Bindoli A, Rigobello MP: Effect of metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase and the regulation of mitochondrial permeability conditions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:348-54. [15659816 ]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]