Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:11 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:14 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0158
Identification
Common Name2-Methylnaphthalene
ClassSmall Molecule
Description2-Methylnaphthalene is one of over 100 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning organic substances, such as fossil fuels. They are usually found as a mixture containing two or more of these compounds. (5)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial By-product/Pollutant
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Methylnaphthalene (beta)
2-Naphthylmethyl radical
B-methylnaphthalene
Beta-methyl naphthalenes
Beta-methylnaphthalene
Beta.-methylnaphthalene
Methyl-2-naphthalene
Chemical FormulaC11H10
Average Molecular Mass142.197 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass142.078 g/mol
CAS Registry Number91-57-6
IUPAC Name2-methylnaphthalene
Traditional Name2-methylnaphthalene
SMILESCC1=CC=C2C=CC=CC2=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C11H10/c1-9-6-7-10-4-2-3-5-11(10)8-9/h2-8H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=QIMMUPPBPVKWKM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as naphthalenes. Naphthalenes are compounds containing a naphthalene moiety, which consists of two fused benzene rings.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassNaphthalenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentNaphthalenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Naphthalene
  • Aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Polycyclic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point34.4°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.0246 mg/mL at 25 °C [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.017 g/LALOGPS
logP3.83ALOGPS
logP3.48ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity47.55 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9800000000-1ae0df46161af462c53dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-2900000000-e3d5d8950004ca237838View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-0900000000-fc999862e44e7aea8048View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-f176e8ebeee029c8ad89View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-8f9f0039a7c67ac75150View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-58f20b5190f45805880eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014l-2900000000-b954930335ee0c854ed7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-682acebb92e0b06e8e28View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-682acebb92e0b06e8e28View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-0bcf13e1acfdfe656436View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-2900000000-9ac29319d37f96c9e871View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe ability of PAH's to bind to blood proteins such as albumin allows them to be transported throughout the body. Many PAH's induce the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor or glycine N-methyltransferase protein. These enzymes metabolize PAH's into their toxic intermediates. The reactive metabolites of PAHs (epoxide intermediates, dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, and their various combinations) covalently bind to DNA and other cellular macromolecules, initiating mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (5, 7, 2, 3)
MetabolismPAH metabolism occurs in all tissues, usually by cytochrome P-450 and its associated enzymes. PAHs are metabolized into reactive intermediates, which include epoxide intermediates, dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, and their various combinations. The phenols, quinones, and dihydrodiols can all be conjugated to glucuronides and sulfate esters; the quinones also form glutathione conjugates. (5)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1630 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (4)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not directly listed by IARC. 2-Methylnaphthalene is found in coal tar mixtures, and occupational exposures during coal-tar distillation and during paving and roofing with coal-tar pitch are classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). (8)
Uses/SourcesPAHs are released into the environment via the combustion of fossil fuels, coke oven emissions and vehicle exhausts, as well as naturally from forest fires and voLcanic eruptions. PAHs from these sources may contaminate nearly water systems. They are also found in coal tar and charbroiled food. 2-Methylnaphthalene is used to make other chemicals such as dyes and resins. (5, 6)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPAHs are carcinogens and have been associated with the increased risk of skin, respiratory tract, bladder, stomach, and kidney cancers. They may also cause reproductive effects and depress the immune system. Exposure to large amounts of 2-methylnapthalene may damage or destroy the red blood cells, resulting in hemolytic anemia. (5, 6)
SymptomsAcute exposure to PAHs causes irritation and inflammation of the skin and lung tissue. Some symptoms of hemolytic anemia are fatigue, lack of appetite, restlessness, and pale skin. Exposure to large amounts of 2-methylnapthalene may also cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blood in the urine, and a yellow color to the skin. (1, 6)
TreatmentThere is no known antidote for PAHs. Exposure is usually handled with symptomatic treatment. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7055
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL195895
ChemSpider ID6788
KEGG IDC14098
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID50720
BioCyc IDALPHA-NAPHTHALENEACETAMIDE
CTD IDC027384
Stitch ID2-Methylnaphthalene
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID898
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0158.pdf
General References
  1. Santodonato J, Howard P, Basu D: Health and ecological assessment of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1981 Sep;5(1):1-364. [7310260 ]
  2. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  3. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  4. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2-methyl-naphthalene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
2. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glycine n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the methylation of glycine by using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to form N-methylglycine (sarcosine) with the concomitant production of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Possible crucial role in the regulation of tissue concentration of AdoMet and of metabolism of methionine.
Gene Name:
GNMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14749
Molecular Weight:
32742.0 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50120 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50159241
References
  1. Korhonen LE, Rahnasto M, Mahonen NJ, Wittekindt C, Poso A, Juvonen RO, Raunio H: Predictive three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship of cytochrome P450 1A2 inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2005 Jun 2;48(11):3808-15. [15916432 ]