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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:12 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:15 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0170
Identification
Common Namep-Cresol
ClassSmall Molecule
Descriptionp-Cresol (4-methylphenol), a 108.1 Da volatile low-molecular-weight compound, is a phenol. It is a partially lipophilic moiety which strongly binds to plasma protein (close to 100%) under normal conditions. p-Cresol is metabolized through conjugation, mainly sulphation and glucuronization, but removal of the unconjugated p-cresol is, at least in part, via the urine. Therefore it is not surprising that this compound, together with several other phenoles, is retained when the kidneys fail. P-Cresol is an end-product of protein breakdown, and an increase of the nutritional protein load in healthy individuals results in enhanced generation and urinary excretion. The serum p-cresol concentration in uremic patients can be decreased by changing to a low-protein diet. p-Cresol is one of the metabolites of the amino acid tyrosine, and to a certain extent also of phenylalanine, which are converted to 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid by intestinal bacteria, before being decarboxylated to p-cresol (putrefaction). The main contributing bacteria are aerobes (mainly enterobacteria), but to a certain extent also anaerobes play a role (mainly Clostridium perfringens). In uremia, modifications in the intestinal flora result in the specific overgrowth of bacteria that are specific p-cresol producers. The administration of antibiotics reduces urinary excretion of p-cresol, as a result of the liquidation of the producing bacteria. Environmental factors might also contribute. The liver cytochrome P450 metabolizes toluene to benzyl alcohol, but also to o-cresol and p-cresol. Toluene is not only used industrially, but it is also the most widely abusively inhaled solvent. Furthermore, p-cresol is a metabolite of menthofuran, one of the metabolites of R-(+)-pulegone, which is found in extracts from the plants Mentha pulegium and Hedeoma pulegioides, commonly known as pennyroyal oil and pennyroyal tea. These extracts are popular as unconventional herbal therapeutic agents and are applied as abortiva, diaphoretics, emmenagogues, and psychedelic drugs. Pennyroyal oil is extensively used for its pleasant mint-like smell in the flavoring industry. The toxicity of pennyroyal oil and menthofuran is well known. Another compound used in traditional medicine, especially in Japan, which is a precursor of p-cresol is wood tar creosote. p-Cresol has been reported to affect several biochemical, biological and physiological functions: (i) it diminishes the oxygen uptake of rat cerebral cortex slices; (ii) it increases the free active drug concentration of warfarin and diazepam; (iii) it has been related to growth retardation in the weanling pig; (iv) it alters cell membrane permeability, at least in bacteria; (v) it induces LDH leakage from rat liver slices; (vi) it induces susceptibility to auditive epileptic crises; and (vii) it blocks cell K+ channels. (3). p-Cresol is a uremic toxin that is at least partially removed by peritoneal dialysis in haemodialysis patients, and has been involved in the progression of renal failure. (MID: 11169029). At concentrations encountered during uremia, p-cresol inhibits phagocyte function and decreases leukocyte adhesion to cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. (4).
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Disinfectant
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Solvent
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzene
1-Methyl-4-hydroxybenzene
4-Cresol
4-Hydroxytoluene
4-Methyl phenol
4-Methyl-phenol
4-Methylphenol
P-Cresol
p-Cresylate
p-Cresylic acid
p-Hydroxytoluene
p-Kresol
p-Methyl phenol
p-Methylhydroxybenzene
p-Oxytoluene
p-Toluol
p-Tolyl alcohol
para-Cresol
Paracresol
Paramethyl phenol
Chemical FormulaC7H8O
Average Molecular Mass108.138 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass108.058 g/mol
CAS Registry Number106-44-5
IUPAC Name4-methylphenol
Traditional NameP-cresol
SMILESCC1=CC=C(O)C=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H8O/c1-6-2-4-7(8)5-3-6/h2-5,8H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=IWDCLRJOBJJRNH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as para cresols. Para cresols are compounds containing a para cresol moiety, which consists of a benzene ring bearing one hydroxyl group at ring positions 1 and 4.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub ClassCresols
Direct ParentPara cresols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • P-cresol
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Toluene
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless solids or liquids.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point35.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility21.5 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP1.94
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.1 g/LALOGPS
logP1.95ALOGPS
logP2.18ChemAxon
logS-0.67ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity33.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.93 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-1d2bdfde621a5af9be73JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-7900000000-15d473146e11e4b049b2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-4900000000-14fef90a661a09457976JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-1d2bdfde621a5af9be73JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-7900000000-15d473146e11e4b049b2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-4900000000-14fef90a661a09457976JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-6900000000-27534de20ade11dd5454JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-06fr-9700000000-f41dd95ca553de6bafffJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - NA 35V, negativesplash10-0a6u-9600000000-276b44cbbdb079cac718JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-ab55ada5cae0538f383eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-385a7a99e0409c7f060dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-02tl-9000000000-205f4e5245868e9debccJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (VARIAN MAT-44) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-fd438231ac0ed75fdf09JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-7900000000-0cdab17a1a95f3e65f45JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-0c45920f40546c2d8944JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-417774c01b748db1609dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9600000000-5583b6dc3ae583b8dab0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-cf0bed2b3a203309d9aaJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1900000000-4f20c8bd2dde845b499cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-9100000000-393b5f734646352622f9JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-6900000000-729e6f5bdb0da3ed9dedJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (22) ; dermal (22) ; oral (22)
Mechanism of Toxicityp-Cresol is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismCresols can be absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. Once in the body they can distribute rapidly into many organs and tissues. Cresols undergo oxidative metabolism in the liver and are rapidly eliminated, mostly in the urine, as sulfate or glucuronide conjugates. The activation of cresols by oxidation involves tyrosinase and thyroid peroxidase, forming a reactive quinone methide. Experiments with recombinant P-450s demonstrated cresol metabolism was mediated by several P-450s including CYP2D6, 2C19, 1A2, 1A1, and 2E1. (22, 1, 23, 2)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 207 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (16) LD50: 301 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (16) LD50: 25 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (16)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesCresols are used as solvents, disinfectants and deodorizers, as well as to make other chemicals. They may be formed normally in the body from other compounds. Cresols are found in many foods and in wood and tobacco smoke, crude oil, coal tar, and in chemical mixtures used as wood preservatives. Small organisms in soil and water produce cresols when they break down materials in the environment. Breathing air containing cresols is the primary source of exposure. Exposure may also result from drinking contaminated water, eating contaminated food and coming into contact with liquids containing cresols. (22)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.1 mg/kg/day (18) Chronic Oral: 0.1 mg/kg/day (18)
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsIngestion of p-cresol results in burning of the mouth and throat, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Inhalation or dermal exposure of animals to p-cresol can produce irritation and corrosion at the site of contact. (20)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01688
HMDB IDHMDB01858
PubChem Compound ID2879
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL16645
ChemSpider ID13839082
KEGG IDC01468
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17847
BioCyc IDCPD-108
CTD IDC032538
Stitch IDCresol, para-
PDB IDPCR
ACToR ID1807
Wikipedia Linkp-Cresol
References
Synthesis Reference

Heliodoro Monroy, “Process of recovering BHT values from mother liquors of the crystallization of BHT obtained by alkylating p-cresol with isobutylene.” U.S. Patent US3940451, issued January, 1956.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Yan Z, Zhong HM, Maher N, Torres R, Leo GC, Caldwell GW, Huebert N: Bioactivation of 4-methylphenol (p-cresol) via cytochrome P450-mediated aromatic oxidation in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Dec;33(12):1867-76. Epub 2005 Sep 20. [16174805 ]
  2. Yokoi H, Belfort G: High-rate membrane supported aqueous-phase enzymatic conversion in organic solvent. Bioseparation. 1994 Jun;4(3):213-20. [7765181 ]
  3. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Lesaffer G: p-cresol: a toxin revealing many neglected but relevant aspects of uraemic toxicity. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999 Dec;14(12):2813-5. [10570076 ]
  4. Brunet P, Dou L, Cerini C, Berland Y: Protein-bound uremic retention solutes. Adv Ren Replace Ther. 2003 Oct;10(4):310-20. [14681860 ]
  5. Cork A, Park KC: Identification of electrophysiologically-active compounds for the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in human sweat extracts. Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Jul;10(3):269-76. [8887339 ]
  6. Bone E, Tamm A, Hill M: The production of urinary phenols by gut bacteria and their possible role in the causation of large bowel cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Dec;29(12):1448-54. [826152 ]
  7. Buhlmann P, Hayakawa M, Ohshiro T, Amemiya S, Umezawa Y: Influence of natural, electrically neutral lipids on the potentiometric responses of cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes. Anal Chem. 2001 Jul 15;73(14):3199-205. [11476216 ]
  8. Akasaka K, Ohrui H, Meguro H, Tamura M: Determination of triacylglycerol and cholesterol ester hydroperoxides in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric postcolumn detection. J Chromatogr. 1993 Aug 11;617(2):205-11. [8408385 ]
  9. Gostner A, Blaut M, Schaffer V, Kozianowski G, Theis S, Klingeberg M, Dombrowski Y, Martin D, Ehrhardt S, Taras D, Schwiertz A, Kleessen B, Luhrs H, Schauber J, Dorbath D, Menzel T, Scheppach W: Effect of isomalt consumption on faecal microflora and colonic metabolism in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2006 Jan;95(1):40-50. [16441915 ]
  10. Ogata N, Shibata T: Binding of alkyl- and alkoxy-substituted simple phenolic compounds to human serum proteins. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2000;107(1-2):167-73. [11334365 ]
  11. Letelier ME, Rodriguez E, Wallace A, Lorca M, Repetto Y, Morello A, Aldunate J: Trypanosoma cruzi: a possible control of transfusion-induced Chagas' disease by phenolic antioxidants. Exp Parasitol. 1990 Nov;71(4):357-63. [2121515 ]
  12. Geyer H, Scheunert I, Korte F: Bioconcentration potential of organic environmental chemicals in humans. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1986 Dec;6(4):313-47. [3101145 ]
  13. Nishiyama T, Ohnishi J, Hashiguchi Y: Fused heterocyclic antioxidants: antioxidative activities of hydrocoumarins in a homogeneous solution. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 May;65(5):1127-33. [11440127 ]
  14. Dills RL, Bellamy GM, Kalman DA: Quantitation of o-, m- and p-cresol and deuterated analogs in human urine by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Dec 5;703(1-2):105-13. [9448067 ]
  15. Bammens B, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y, Evenepoel P: Evidence for impaired assimilation of protein in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 2003 Dec;64(6):2196-203. [14633143 ]
  16. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  17. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  18. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  19. Wikipedia. P-Cresol. Last Updated 9 March 2009. [Link]
  20. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1996). Poison Information Monograph for Cresols. [Link]
  21. Wikipedia. Chromium(III) acetylacetonate. Last Updated 29 May 2009. [Link]
  22. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for cresols. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  23. Wikipedia. Sodium dichromate. Last Updated 25 May 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC504.9 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50008543
References
  1. Cardozo MG, Iimura Y, Sugimoto H, Yamanishi Y, Hopfinger AJ: QSAR analyses of the substituted indanone and benzylpiperidine rings of a series of indanone-benzylpiperidine inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. J Med Chem. 1992 Feb 7;35(3):584-9. [1738151 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
L-ascorbic acid binding
Specific Function:
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name:
DBH
Uniprot ID:
P09172
Molecular Weight:
69064.45 Da
References
  1. Kruse LI, DeWolf WE Jr, Chambers PA, Goodhart PJ: Design and kinetic characterization of multisubstrate inhibitors of dopamine beta-hydroxylase. Biochemistry. 1986 Nov 18;25(23):7271-8. [3801416 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Keratin-binding protein required for epithelial cell polarization. Involved in apical junction complex (AJC) assembly via its interaction with PARD3. Required for ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
FBF1
Uniprot ID:
Q8TES7
Molecular Weight:
125445.19 Da
References
  1. Ogata N, Shibata T: Binding of alkyl- and alkoxy-substituted simple phenolic compounds to human serum proteins. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2000;107(1-2):167-73. [11334365 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Thiocyanate peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Antimicrobial agent which utilizes hydrogen peroxide and thiocyanate (SCN) to generate the antimicrobial substance hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) (By similarity). May contribute to airway host defense against infection.
Gene Name:
LPO
Uniprot ID:
P22079
Molecular Weight:
80287.055 Da
References
  1. Hosoya T, Sakurada J, Kurokawa C, Toyoda R, Nakamura S: Interaction of aromatic donor molecules with lactoperoxidase probed by optical difference spectra. Biochemistry. 1989 Mar 21;28(6):2639-44. [2730881 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular Weight:
83867.71 Da
References
  1. Hori H, Fenna RE, Kimura S, Ikeda-Saito M: Aromatic substrate molecules bind at the distal heme pocket of myeloperoxidase. J Biol Chem. 1994 Mar 18;269(11):8388-92. [8132563 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]