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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:13 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:17 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0178
Identification
Common NameAmericium
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAmericium is a synthetic element that has the symbol Am and atomic number 95. It is a radioactive metallic element of the actinide series. Eighteen radioisotopes of americium, with mass number from 231 to 249, have been characterized. The most stable isotopes are Am-243 (half-life of 7370 years) and Am-241 (half-life of 432.2 years). The most used isotope is Am-241 because it is easiest to produce. Americium is widely used in commercial ionization-chamber smoke detectors as well as in neutron sources and industrial gauges. Americium emits alpha and gamma radiation, which represents a serious health hazard. (2)
Compound Type
  • Americium Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Pollutant
  • Radioactive
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(243)Am
243Am
95Am
Am
Americio
Americium 243
Americium(III)
Americium-243
Amerizium
Chemical FormulaAm
Average Molecular Mass243.000 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass243.000 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7440-35-9
IUPAC Nameamericium
Traditional Nameamericium
SMILES[Am]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Am
InChI KeyInChIKey=LXQXZNRPTYVCNG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous actinide compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous actinide compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous actinide compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous actinide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceAmericium is a silvery-white solid metal, which tarnishes in dry air at room temperature. (2)
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point1449°K (1176°C, 2149°F )
Boiling Point2880°K (2607 °C, 4725 °F)
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-f2f8bc4e7c7af9384c95JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-f2f8bc4e7c7af9384c95JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-f2f8bc4e7c7af9384c95JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-db920c4a8fe46e25a908JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-db920c4a8fe46e25a908JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-0090000000-db920c4a8fe46e25a908JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; Inhalation (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityAmericium toxicity results primarily from the damage done by the alpha particle emitted during radioactive decay. This alpha particle has very limited penetration in tissue, and hence, the cellular damage occurs only in the immediate vicinity of the sequestered americium. The ionizing radiation produced by americium causes cellular damage that includes DNA breakage, accurate or inaccurate repair, apoptosis, gene mutations, chromosomal change, and genetic instability. This leads to loss of normal cell and tissue homeostasis, and development of malignancy. Ionizing radiation that does not directly damage DNA can produce reactive oxygen intermediates that directly affect the stability of p53, an important enzyme in cell-cycle regulation, and produce oxidative damage to individual bases in DNA and point mutations by mispairing during DNA replication. (3)
MetabolismAmericium can be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure. In the body it distributes primarily to the liver, as well as to the bone and skeletal muscle. The metabolism of americium involves binding interactions with proteins and probably complex formation with various inorganic anions, such as carbonate and phosphate, and carboxylic acids, such as citrate and lactate. Americium is excreted in faeces and urine. (4)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Internalized radionuclides that emit α-particles are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) (6). Americium-243 undergoes alpha decay.
Uses/SourcesAmericium is widely used in commercial ionization-chamber smoke detectors as well as in neutron sources and industrial gauges. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Radiation: 4 mSv (1) Chronic Radiation: 1 mSv/yr (1)
Health EffectsAmericium's radioactivity can cause cancer, especially of the bone, where it is known to accumulate. Exposure to large amount of americium may also damage the lungs, liver, and thyroid. (4)
SymptomsExposure to high doses of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome, which can cause skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation, low blood pressure, headache, fatigue, weakness, fever, birth defects, illness, infection, and death. (3, 5)
TreatmentTreatment reversing the effects of irradiation is currently not possible. Anaesthetics and antiemetics are administered to counter the symptoms of exposure, as well as antibiotics for countering secondary infections due to the resulting immune system deficiency. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID23966
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID22405
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID33389
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDD000576
Stitch IDAmericium
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmericium
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0178.pdf
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. Wikipedia. Americium. Last Updated 25 June 2009. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for americium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Radiation poisoning. Last Updated 22 August 2009. [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2012. Radiation: A Review of Human Carcinogens. IARC monograph, volume 100D. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]