You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:14 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:17 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0180
Identification
Common NamePalladium
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPalladium is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal. Palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of platinum group metals. The primary use for palladium is in catalytic converters for the automotive industry.
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Nickel Compound
  • Palladium Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Paladio
Palladium ion
Palladium(II)
Palladium(II) ion)
Palladium(IV)
Palladium(IV) ion
Pd
Pd(0)
Pd(2+)
Pd(4+)
Pd(II) ion
Pd2+
Pd4+
Chemical FormulaPd
Average Molecular Mass106.420 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass105.903 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7440-05-03
IUPAC Namepalladium
Traditional Namepalladium
SMILES[Pd]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Pd
InChI KeyInChIKey=KDLHZDBZIXYQEI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceSilver-white metal.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point1554.9°C
Boiling Point3167°C (5732.6°F)
SolubilityNot Available
LogP0
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-cfbea5880bde44122df5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-cfbea5880bde44122df5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-cfbea5880bde44122df5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-e5a383c648e39dd19c11JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-e5a383c648e39dd19c11JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-e5a383c648e39dd19c11JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (1) ; oral (1) ; dermal (1)
Mechanism of ToxicityPalladium ions are able to inhibit most major cellular fuctions. They form strong complexes with both inorganic and organic ligands, substitute essential ions, bind to amino acids and various enzymes including creatine kinase and prolyl hydroxylase, and interact with functional groups of other macromolecules such as DNA leading to strand breakage. (3)
MetabolismPalladium may be absorbed through oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure. Once in the body it distributes to the kidney, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenal gland, lung and bone. Palladium and its metabolites are excreted in the urine and faeces. (1)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesPalladium is found mainly in catalytic converters and jewelry. It is also found in many electronics including computers, mobile phones, multi-layer ceramic capacitors, component plating, low voltage electrical contacts, and SED/OLED/LCD televisions. Palladium is also used in dentistry, medicine, hydrogen purification, chemical applications, and groundwater treatment. Palladium plays a key role in the technology used for fuel cells, which combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, heat and water. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsContact with palladium may cause palladium sensitivity and allergy. Animal studies have shown that palladium may damage the liver and kidney. (3)
SymptomsSkin contact with palladium may cause contact dermatitis, erythema, and oedema. (3)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB13670
PubChem Compound ID23938
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID22380
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID33363
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDD010165
Stitch IDPalladium
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPalladium
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Smith DR, Kahng MW, Quintanilla-Vega B, Fowler BA: High-affinity renal lead-binding proteins in environmentally-exposed humans. Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Aug 14;115(1):39-52. [9817074 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Palladium. Last Updated 14 June 2009. [Link]
  3. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (2002). Environmental Health Criteria for Palladium. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKM
Uniprot ID:
P06732
Molecular Weight:
43100.91 Da
References
  1. Liu TZ, Khayam-Bashi H, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of creatine kinase activity and alterations in electrophoretic mobility by palladium ions. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1979 Jan-Feb;2(3):907-16. [422942 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA1
Uniprot ID:
P13674
Molecular Weight:
61048.775 Da
References
  1. Rapaka RS, Sorensen KR, Lee SD, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of hydroxyproline synthesis by palladium ions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 11;429(1):63-71. [177068 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA2
Uniprot ID:
O15460
Molecular Weight:
60901.42 Da
References
  1. Rapaka RS, Sorensen KR, Lee SD, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of hydroxyproline synthesis by palladium ions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 11;429(1):63-71. [177068 ]
General Function:
Procollagen-proline 4-dioxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in -Xaa-Pro-Gly- sequences in collagens and other proteins.
Gene Name:
P4HA3
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4N8
Molecular Weight:
61125.675 Da
References
  1. Rapaka RS, Sorensen KR, Lee SD, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of hydroxyproline synthesis by palladium ions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 11;429(1):63-71. [177068 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, 2-oxoglutarate as one donor, and incorporation of one atom each of oxygen into both donors
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates HIF1A at 'Pro-402' and 'Pro-564'. May function as a cellular oxygen sensor and, under normoxic conditions, may target HIF through the hydroxylation for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex.
Gene Name:
P4HTM
Uniprot ID:
Q9NXG6
Molecular Weight:
56660.535 Da
References
  1. Rapaka RS, Sorensen KR, Lee SD, Bhatnagar RS: Inhibition of hydroxyproline synthesis by palladium ions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1976 Mar 11;429(1):63-71. [177068 ]