Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:15 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:18 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0189
Identification
Common NameCarbon monoxide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCarbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It is the product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds, notably in internal-combustion engines. It consists of one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. It is a gas at room temperature. Carbon monoxide is a significantly toxic gas and is the most common type of fatal poisoning in many countries. Exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system and heart. Carbon monoxide has a higher diffusion coefficient compared to oxygen and the only enzyme in the human body that produces carbon monoxide is heme oxygenase which is located in all cells and breaks down heme. Because it has a higher diffusion coefficient than oxygen the body easily gets rid of any CO made. When CO is not ventilated it binds to hemoglobin, which is the principal oxygen-carrying compound in blood; this produces a compound known as carboxyhemoglobin. The traditional belief is that carbon monoxide toxicity arises from the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, which decreases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood and inhibits the transport, delivery, and utilization of oxygen by the body. The affinity between hemoglobin and carbon monoxide is approximately 230 times stronger than the affinity between hemoglobin and oxygen so hemoglobin binds to carbon monoxide in preference to oxygen. Following poisoning, long-term sequelae often occur. Carbon monoxide can also have severe effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman. Despite its serious toxicity, CO is extremely useful and underpins much modern technology, being a precursor to a myriad of useful - even life-saving - products. Carbon monoxide, though thought of as a pollutant today, has always been present in the atmosphere, chiefly as a product of volcanic activity. It occurs dissolved in molten volcanic rock at high pressures in the earth's mantle. Carbon monoxide contents of volcanic gases vary from less than 0.01% to as much as 2% depending on the volcano. It also occurs naturally in bushfires. Because natural sources of carbon monoxide are so variable from year to year, it is extremely difficult to accurately measure natural emissions of the gas. (wikipedia).
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial By-product/Pollutant
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Carbon(II) oxide
Carbonous oxide
CO
Chemical FormulaCO
Average Molecular Mass28.010 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass27.995 g/mol
CAS Registry Number630-08-0
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
SMILES[C-]#[O+]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/CO/c1-2
InChI KeyInChIKey=UGFAIRIUMAVXCW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other non-metals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateGas
AppearanceColorless gas.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point−205.02 °C
Boiling Point−191.5 °C
Solubility1.48 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP0.83
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.37 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.06ALOGPS
logS-1.1ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity26.23 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.94 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-5ea4ad4bdb0565b737bbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-5ea4ad4bdb0565b737bbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-5ea4ad4bdb0565b737bbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b175ec2a41978516a72eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b175ec2a41978516a72eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b175ec2a41978516a72eView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004i-9000000000-dfbb2bd73fc3d527a340View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityCarbon monoxide possesses a higher affinity than oxygen for hemoglobin, leading to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin, this provoking anoxemia. Carbon monoxide also binds to myoglobin, impairing its ability to utilize oxygen. It can also bind to cytochrome c oxidase, though with a lesser affinity than oxygen. This interferes with aerobic metabolism and efficient ATP synthesis. As a result, cells switch to anaerobic metabolism, causing anoxia, lactic acidosis, and eventual cell death. Carbon monoxide also causes endothelial cell and platelet release of nitric oxide, and the formation of oxygen free radicals. This results in lipid peroxidation, leading to edema and necrosis within the brain. (3)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal Dose5000 ppm over 5 minutes for an adult human. (1)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesCarbon monoxide is a major atmospheric pollutant in urban areas, chiefly from exhaust of internal combustion engines, but also from improper burning of various other fuels. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide may cause persistent headaches, lightheadedness, depression, confusion, memory loss, and nausea and vomiting. (3)
SymptomsEarly symptoms of acute carbon monoxide poisoning are nonspecific and include headaches, nausea, and fatigue. Symptoms may progress to tachycardia and hypertension. The central nervous system is one of the organ systems most sensitive to poisoning and symptoms displayed include dizziness, ataxia, confusion, convulsions, unconsciousness, respiratory arrest, and even death. (3)
TreatmentCarbon monoxide poisoning is first treated by immediate removal from the source of exposure. High-flow or 100% oxygen should then be administered by a nonrebreather reservoir oxygen mask. Oxygen hastens the dissociation of carbon monoxide from hemoglobin, improving tissue oxygenation by reducing carbon monoxides biological half-life. Hyperbaric oxygen may also be used, as it increases carboxyhemoglobin dissociation to a greater extent than normal oxygen. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB01361
PubChem Compound ID281
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1231840
ChemSpider ID275
KEGG IDC00237
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID141250 , 172460 , 259900 , 266500
ChEBI ID17245
BioCyc IDCARBON-MONOXIDE
CTD IDD002248
Stitch IDCarbon monoxide
PDB IDCMO
ACToR ID3844
Wikipedia LinkCarbon monoxide
References
Synthesis ReferenceIvanova, Svetlana; Pitchon, Veronique; Petit, Corinne. Application of the direct exchange method in the preparation of gold catalysts supported on different oxide materials. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical (2006), 256(1-2), 278-283.
MSDST3D0189.pdf
General References
  1. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2002). RTECS: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
  2. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide. Last Updated 29 June 2009. [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. CO I is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Electrons originating in cytochrome c are transferred via the copper A center of subunit 2 and heme A of subunit 1 to the bimetallic center formed by heme A3 and copper B.
Gene Name:
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID:
P00395
Molecular Weight:
57040.91 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. Subunit 2 transfers the electrons from cytochrome c via its binuclear copper A center to the bimetallic center of the catalytic subunit 1.
Gene Name:
MT-CO2
Uniprot ID:
P00403
Molecular Weight:
25564.73 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Subunits I, II and III form the functional core of the enzyme complex.
Gene Name:
MT-CO3
Uniprot ID:
P00414
Molecular Weight:
29950.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I1
Uniprot ID:
P13073
Molecular Weight:
19576.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I2
Uniprot ID:
Q96KJ9
Molecular Weight:
20010.02 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This is the heme A-containing chain of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5A
Uniprot ID:
P20674
Molecular Weight:
16761.985 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5B
Uniprot ID:
P10606
Molecular Weight:
13695.57 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A1
Uniprot ID:
P12074
Molecular Weight:
12154.8 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A2
Uniprot ID:
Q02221
Molecular Weight:
10815.32 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B1
Uniprot ID:
P14854
Molecular Weight:
10192.345 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B2
Uniprot ID:
Q6YFQ2
Molecular Weight:
10528.905 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6C
Uniprot ID:
P09669
Molecular Weight:
8781.36 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A1
Uniprot ID:
P24310
Molecular Weight:
9117.44 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A2
Uniprot ID:
P14406
Molecular Weight:
9395.89 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport. Plays a role in proper central nervous system (CNS) development in vertebrates.
Gene Name:
COX7B
Uniprot ID:
P24311
Molecular Weight:
9160.485 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7B2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF08
Molecular Weight:
9077.43 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7C
Uniprot ID:
P15954
Molecular Weight:
7245.45 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8A
Uniprot ID:
P10176
Molecular Weight:
7579.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8C
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4L0
Molecular Weight:
8128.575 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBD
Uniprot ID:
P02042
Molecular Weight:
16055.41 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The epsilon chain is a beta-type chain of early mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBE1
Uniprot ID:
P02100
Molecular Weight:
16202.71 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Gene Name:
HBG1
Uniprot ID:
P69891
Molecular Weight:
16140.37 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Specific Function:
Heme binding
Gene Name:
HBG2
Uniprot ID:
P69892
Molecular Weight:
16126.35 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBM
Uniprot ID:
Q6B0K9
Molecular Weight:
15617.97 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBQ1
Uniprot ID:
P09105
Molecular Weight:
15507.575 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The zeta chain is an alpha-type chain of mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBZ
Uniprot ID:
P02008
Molecular Weight:
15636.845 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Serves as a reserve supply of oxygen and facilitates the movement of oxygen within muscles.
Gene Name:
MB
Uniprot ID:
P02144
Molecular Weight:
17183.725 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
COX7A2P2
Uniprot ID:
O60397
Molecular Weight:
11840.715 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Carbon monoxide poisoning. Last Updated 27 June 2009. [Link]