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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:18 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:21 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0216
Identification
Common NameNitrate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionIn inorganic chemistry, a nitrate is a salt of nitric acid. In organic chemistry the esters of nitric acid and various alcohols are called nitrates. The nitrate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula NO3- and a molecular mass of 62.01 daltons; it consists of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identical oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a negative one formal charge. Nitrates should not be confused with nitrites, the salts of nitrous acid. Organic compounds containing the nitro functional group (which has the same formula and structure as the nitrate ion save that one of the O2 atoms is replaced by the R group) are known as nitro compounds. Nitrate ions can be toxic. In particular, nitrate toxicosis in humans occurs through enterohepatic metabolism of nitrates to ammonia, with nitrite being an intermediate. Nitrites oxidize the iron atoms in hemoglobin from Ferrous Iron (2+) to Ferric Iron (3+), rendering it unable to carry oxygen. This condition is called methemoglobinemia and can lead to a lack of oxygen in tissues. Methemoglobinemia can be treated with methylene blue. -- Wikipedia.
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Nitrate
  • Nitrite
  • Non-Metal
  • Pesticide
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Nitrate ion
Nitrate(1-)
Nitric acid
Trioxidonitrate
Trioxidonitrate(1-)
Trioxonitrate
Trioxonitrate(1-)
Chemical FormulaNO3
Average Molecular Mass62.005 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass61.988 g/mol
CAS Registry Number14797-55-8
IUPAC Namenitrate
Traditional Namenitrate
SMILES[O-]N(=O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/NO3/c2-1(3)4/q-1
InChI KeyInChIKey=NHNBFGGVMKEFGY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal nitrates. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a nitrate as its largest oxoanion.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassNon-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal nitrates
Direct ParentNon-metal nitrates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Non-metal nitrate
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Heart
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Lung
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point73°C (163.4°F)
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity8.35 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.28 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-62b6946f773f2794ce2bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03dj-9000000000-b705d64f017cd9970bcbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-a03d650125e7c3c9631aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-6d9d3ad97d4b8f473d63JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-30aa91b9c1649e1a8e72JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-8ec454185b5a5da7b125JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03dj-9000000000-4de59f98968f9eaff499JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-272e3456c62a5f032c8cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-2325ea6feac64f6d9cbdJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-8c9248f9c4b7a86e3459JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-8c9248f9c4b7a86e3459JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-8c9248f9c4b7a86e3459JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (18) ; inhalation (18)
Mechanism of ToxicityNitrate's toxicity is a result of it's conversion to nitrite once in the body. Nitrite causes the autocatalytic oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to hydrogen peroxide and methemoglobin. This elevation of methemoglobin levels is a condition known as methemoglobinemia, and is characterized by tissue hypoxia, as methemoglobin cannot bind oxygen. (1, 19)
MetabolismIntake of some amount of nitrates and nitrites is a normal part of the nitrogen cycle in humans. In vivo conversion of nitrates to nitrites can occur in the gastrointestional tract under the right conditions, significantly enhancing nitrates' toxic potency. The major metabolic pathway for nitrate is conversion to nitrite, and then to ammonia. Nitrites, nitrates, and their metabolites are excreted in the urine. (18)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 138 ppm over 30 minutes (Inhalation, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Ingested nitrate or nitrite under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). (17)
Uses/SourcesNitrates and nitrites are naturally produced and may also be found in pesticides. Exposure usually occurs from contact with contaminated soil, food water. Nitrates may also be found in certain drugs. (18)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNitrate and nitrite poisoning causes methemoglobinemia. Nitrites may cause pregnancy complications and developmental effects. They may also be carcinogenic. (18)
SymptomsNitrate and nitrite poisoning causes methemoglobinemia. Symptoms include cyanosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and circulatory failure, and progressive central nervous system (CNS) effects. CNS effects can range from mild dizziness and lethargy to coma and convulsions. (18)
TreatmentMethemoglobinemia can be treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue 1% solution administered intravenously slowly over five minutes followed by IV flush with normal saline. Methylene blue restores the iron in hemoglobin to its normal (reduced) oxygen-carrying state. (19)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB02878
PubChem Compound ID943
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID918
KEGG IDC00244
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID109270 , 125853 , 163729
ChEBI ID17632
BioCyc IDCPD-144
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNitrate
PDB IDNO3
ACToR ID6494
Wikipedia LinkNitrate
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Park CH, Carboni E, Wood PL, Gee KW: Characterization of peripheral benzodiazepine type sites in a cultured murine BV-2 microglial cell line. Glia. 1996 Jan;16(1):65-70. [8787774 ]
  3. Rachid MA, Camargos ER, Barcellos L, Marques CA, Chiari E, Huang H, Tanowitz HB, Teixeira MM, Machado CR: Blockade of endothelin ET(A)/ET(B) receptors favors a role for endothelin during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rats. Microbes Infect. 2006 Jul;8(8):2113-9. Epub 2006 Jun 6. [16844401 ]
  4. Susilo R, Korting HC, Strauss UP, Menke G, Schuster O, Menke A: Rate and extent of percutaneous absorption of sertaconazole nitrate after topical administration. Arzneimittelforschung. 2005;55(6):338-42. [16032974 ]
  5. Miyado T, Tanaka Y, Nagai H, Takeda S, Saito K, Fukushi K, Yoshida Y, Wakida S, Niki E: Simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in biological fluids by capillary electrophoresis and preliminary study on their determination by microchip capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A. 2004 Oct 8;1051(1-2):185-91. [15532572 ]
  6. Mitsui T, Kondo T: Assessing nitrate metabolism in the intestinal tract by measuring breath nitric oxide and nitrous oxide, and its clinical significance. Clin Chim Acta. 2002 May 7;319(1):57-62. [11922924 ]
  7. Boll MC, Alcaraz-Zubeldia M, Montes S, Murillo-Bonilla L, Rios C: Raised nitrate concentration and low SOD activity in the CSF of sporadic ALS patients. Neurochem Res. 2003 May;28(5):699-703. [12716019 ]
  8. Goncalves J, Wasif N, Esposito D, Coico JM, Schwartz B, Higgins PJ, Bockman RS, Staiano-Coico L: Gallium nitrate accelerates partial thickness wound repair and alters keratinocyte integrin expression to favor a motile phenotype. J Surg Res. 2002 Apr;103(2):134-40. [11922726 ]
  9. Ceregrzyn M, Kamata T, Yajima T, Kuwahara A: Biphasic alterations in gastrointestinal transit following endotoxaemia in mice. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2001 Dec;13(6):605-13. [11903922 ]
  10. Bories C, Scherman E, Bories PN: Serum and tissue nitrate levels in murine visceral leishmaniasis correlate with parasite load but not with host protection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Jul-Aug;91(4):433-6. [9373644 ]
  11. Parslow RC, McKinney PA, Law GR, Staines A, Williams R, Bodansky HJ: Incidence of childhood diabetes mellitus in Yorkshire, northern England, is associated with nitrate in drinking water: an ecological analysis. Diabetologia. 1997 May;40(5):550-6. [9165223 ]
  12. Tajtakova M, Langer P, Semanova Z, Tomkova Z, Szokeova E, Majoros J, Petrovicova J, Veseliny E: [Nitrate contaminated drinking water from private wells has an impact on the size and functional state of the thyroid gland in schoolchildren]. Vnitr Lek. 2000 Nov;46(11):764-7. [15637891 ]
  13. Weyer PJ, Cerhan JR, Kross BC, Hallberg GR, Kantamneni J, Breuer G, Jones MP, Zheng W, Lynch CF: Municipal drinking water nitrate level and cancer risk in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Epidemiology. 2001 May;12(3):327-38. [11338313 ]
  14. Mukhopadhyay S, Ghosh D, Chatterjee A, Sinha S, Tripathy S, Chandra AK: Evaluation of possible goitrogenic and anti-thyroidal effect of nitrate, a potential environmental pollutant. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul-Sep;49(3):284-8. [16440845 ]
  15. Tsikas D: Methods of quantitative analysis of the nitric oxide metabolites nitrite and nitrate in human biological fluids. Free Radic Res. 2005 Aug;39(8):797-815. [16036360 ]
  16. Environment Canada (1981). Tech Info for Problem Spills: Nitric acid.
  17. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  18. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  19. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
  20. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1997). Toxicological profile for hydrazine. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  21. Wikipedia. Nitrate. Last Updated 15 August 2014. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory7000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Zimmerman S, Ferry JG, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Sep 6;14(17):4563-7. [15357993 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Lehtonen JM, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the newly isolated murine isozyme XIII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Nov 1;14(21):5435-9. [15454240 ]
  3. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  4. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
  5. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory35000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Zimmerman S, Ferry JG, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Sep 6;14(17):4563-7. [15357993 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Lehtonen JM, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the newly isolated murine isozyme XIII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Nov 1;14(21):5435-9. [15454240 ]
  3. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  4. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
  5. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular Weight:
35032.075 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory58700 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Molecular Weight:
49697.36 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory46000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBD
Uniprot ID:
P02042
Molecular Weight:
16055.41 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The epsilon chain is a beta-type chain of early mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBE1
Uniprot ID:
P02100
Molecular Weight:
16202.71 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Gene Name:
HBG1
Uniprot ID:
P69891
Molecular Weight:
16140.37 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Specific Function:
Heme binding
Gene Name:
HBG2
Uniprot ID:
P69892
Molecular Weight:
16126.35 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBM
Uniprot ID:
Q6B0K9
Molecular Weight:
15617.97 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBQ1
Uniprot ID:
P09105
Molecular Weight:
15507.575 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The zeta chain is an alpha-type chain of mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBZ
Uniprot ID:
P02008
Molecular Weight:
15636.845 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name:
CA5A
Uniprot ID:
P35218
Molecular Weight:
34750.21 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory16000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name:
CA6
Uniprot ID:
P23280
Molecular Weight:
35366.615 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory760 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Molecular Weight:
29658.235 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory190 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Vullo D, Ruusuvuori E, Kaila K, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the cytosolic human isozyme VII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jun 15;16(12):3139-43. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [16621537 ]