Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:18 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:21 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0219
Identification
Common NameAntimony
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAntimony metal and many of its compounds have been known since ancient times, and its toxicity has periodically been a matter of comment. Antimony (stibium) is an element and a metalloid, with atomic number 51 and atomic weight 121.75. It is in Group Va of the Periodic Table along with arsenic, bismuth, nitrogen and phosphorus. Contact with antimony occurs in a variety of ways, and as it is a common element in the surface of the earth it may accompany exposures to many different materials. Antimony has been identified in at least 114 different ores, and has even been found in meteorites. A recurrent problem in assessing its toxicity industrially is that arsenic and lead are often found with it, and other toxic materials, for example sulfur dioxide, may also be produced in the course of the process, and separation of exposures may be difficult or impossible. Contact with antimony has also occurred from is use as a medicinal substance, from natural exposures, and from domestic sources. Antimony has been a constituent not only of printing-metal but also of lead acid batteries, pigments, an opacifier under glazes and enamels (the white oxide), and in the present day it has been used widely as a flame retardant in fabrics and in brake linings of motor cars. Large scale industrial production, largely of antimony oxide, began in the early 19th century. Physiologically, this metal/element exists as an ion in the body. The toxicology of antimony and its compounds is known from three sources: its medicinal use over centuries, studies of process workers in more recent times, and more recent still, studies of its presence in modern city environments and in domestic environments. Gross exposure to antimony compounds over long periods, usually the sulfide (SbS3) or the oxide (Sb2O3) has occurred in antimony miners and in antimony process workers. There have been relatively few of these, and few studies of possible symptoms have been made. Antimony sulfide imported from, at different times, China, South Africa, and South America was processed in the North-East of England from about 1870 to 2003. The process workers in North-East England have been studied at different times, notably by Sir Thomas Oliver in 1933, and by the Newcastle upon Tyne University Department of Occupational Medicine on later occasions. Studies which have been made of the working environment, and in particular of the risk of lung cancer in process workers, have underlined the high levels of exposure to antimony compounds and to other toxic materials. However, the working conditions in antimony processing have improved markedly over the last 30 years, and the workforce had been much reduced in numbers following automation of the process. Prior to the cessation of the industry in the UK it had become a white coat operation with relatively few people exposed to high concentrations of antimony. Antimony, which is normally present in domestic environments, has also been studied as a possible cause of cot death syndrome (SIDS) but extensive investigations have not confirmed this. The full importance of environmental antimony has still to be determined, and evidence of specific effects has not yet been presented. (2).
Compound Type
  • Antimony Compound
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Metal
  • Metalloid
  • Natural Compound
  • Pollutant
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Antimony (3+) ion
Antimony (5+) ion
Antimony black
Antimony cation
Antimony element
Antimony ion
Antimony(II)
Antimony(V)
Sb
Sb(3+)
Sb(5+)
Sb(III)
Sb(V)
Stibium
Chemical FormulaSb
Average Molecular Mass121.760 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass120.902 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7440-36-0
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
SMILES[Sb+3]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Sb/q+3
InChI KeyInChIKey=FAWGZAFXDJGWBB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous metalloid compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a metalloid atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous metalloid compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous metalloid compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous metalloid
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point630°C
Boiling Point1635°C (2975°F)
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-f838159747de83d607aaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-f838159747de83d607aaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-f838159747de83d607aaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c291a29e512d9d5b8686View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c291a29e512d9d5b8686View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c291a29e512d9d5b8686View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (7) ; oral (7) ; dermal (7)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe inhalation data suggests that the myocardium is a target of antimony toxicity. It is possible that antimony affects circulating glucose by interfering with enzymes of the glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. The mechanism of action of antimony remains unclear. However, some studies suggest that antimony combines with sulfhydryl groups including those in several enzymes important for tissue respiration. The antidotal action of BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) depends on its ability to prevent or break the union between antimony and vital enzymes. Moreover, the cause of death is believed to be essentially the same as that in acute arsenic poisoning. (3, 7, 1)
MetabolismAbsorbed antimony is transported to various tissue compartments of the body via the blood; the highest levels are found in the hair and skin; the adrenal glands, lung, large intestine, trachea, cerebellum, and kidneys also contain relatively high levels of antimony. Antimony can covalently interact with sulfhydryl groups and phosphate, as well as numerous reversible binding interactions with endogenous ligands (e.g., proteins). It is not known if these interactions are toxicologically significant. Antimony is a metal and, therefore, does not undergo catabolism. Antimony is excreted via the urine and feces. Some of the fecal antimony may represent unabsorbed antimony that is cleared from the lung via mucociliary action into the esophagus to the gastrointestinal tract. (7)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity (not listed by IARC). (6)
Uses/SourcesAntimony enters the environment during the mining and processing of its ores and in the production of antimony metal, alloys, antimony oxide, and combinations of antimony with other substances. Exposure usually occurs from breathing air, drinking water, and eating foods that contain antimony. Exposure can also occur through dermal or skin contact. (7)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsDermal exposure to antimony can cause antimony spots (papules and pustules around sweat and sebaceous glands). Antimony poisoning can also lead to pneumoconiosis. Alterations in pulmonary function and other effects including chronic bronchitis, chronic emphysema, inactive tuberculosis, pleural adhesions, and irritation can result from inhalation of antimony. Increased blood pressure can also result from antimony poisoning. Myocardial depression, vasodilation and fluid loss may cause shock with hypotension, electrolyte disturbances and acute renal failure. Cerebral oedema, coma, convulsions, and death are possible. (7)
SymptomsAbdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea can result from inhalation of antimony. Dyspnea, headache, vomiting,cough, conjunctivitis, and bloody purulent discharge from nose can result from inhalation exposure. Skin or eye contact can cause pain and redness of the exposed surface. (5, 7)
TreatmentFollowing oral exposure to antimony, administer charcoal as a slurry (240 mL water/30 g charcoal). Following inhalation exposure, move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. In case of eye exposure, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. Following dermal exposure, remove contaminated clothing and wash exposed area thoroughly with soap and water. A physician may need to examine the area if irritation or pain persists. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB04118
PubChem Compound ID104894
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID94667
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID49867
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDD000965
Stitch IDAntimony
PDB IDSB
ACToR ID6363
Wikipedia LinkAntimony
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Poon R, Chu I, Lecavalier P, Valli VE, Foster W, Gupta S, Thomas B: Effects of antimony on rats following 90-day exposure via drinking water. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998 Jan;36(1):21-35. [9487361 ]
  2. McCallum RI: Occupational exposure to antimony compounds. J Environ Monit. 2005 Dec;7(12):1245-50. Epub 2005 Oct 26. [16307078 ]
  3. Hayes WJ Jr. and Laws ER Jr. (eds) (1991). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Volume 3. Classes of Pesticides. New York, NY: Academic Press, Inc.
  4. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  5. Hamilton A and Hardy HL (1974). Industrial Toxicology. 3rd ed. Acton, MA: Publishing Sciences Group, Inc.
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  7. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for antimony. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA1
Uniprot ID:
P08263
Molecular Weight:
25630.785 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
P09210
Molecular Weight:
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Catalyzes isomerization reactions that contribute to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. Efficiently catalyze obligatory double-bond isomerizations of delta(5)-androstene-3,17-dione and delta(5)-pregnene-3,20-dione, precursors to testosterone and progesterone, respectively.
Gene Name:
GSTA3
Uniprot ID:
Q16772
Molecular Weight:
25301.355 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTA5
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTV2
Molecular Weight:
25721.725 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM1
Uniprot ID:
P09488
Molecular Weight:
25711.555 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM2
Uniprot ID:
P28161
Molecular Weight:
25744.395 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the testis and brain blood barriers.
Gene Name:
GSTM3
Uniprot ID:
P21266
Molecular Weight:
26559.32 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.
Gene Name:
GSTM4
Uniprot ID:
Q03013
Molecular Weight:
25561.095 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM5
Uniprot ID:
P46439
Molecular Weight:
25674.455 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular Weight:
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Significant glutathione conjugating activity is found only with the model substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB).
Gene Name:
GSTK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Q3
Molecular Weight:
25496.625 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTO1
Uniprot ID:
P78417
Molecular Weight:
27565.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase activity. Has high dehydroascorbate reductase activity and may contribute to the recycling of ascorbic acid. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA).
Gene Name:
GSTO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4Y5
Molecular Weight:
28253.52 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Acts on 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane, phenethylisothiocyanate 4-nitrobenzyl chloride and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Displays glutathione peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Molecular Weight:
27334.755 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a sulfatase activity.
Gene Name:
GSTT2
Uniprot ID:
P0CG29
Molecular Weight:
27505.775 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A8MPT4
Molecular Weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Bifunctional enzyme showing minimal glutathione-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity. Has also low glutathione peroxidase activity with T-butyl and cumene hydroperoxides. Is able to catalyze the glutathione dependent oxygenation of dichloroacetic acid to glyoxylic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID:
O43708
Molecular Weight:
24212.005 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a wide substrate specificity.
Gene Name:
MGST1
Uniprot ID:
P10620
Molecular Weight:
17598.45 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Leukotriene-c4 synthase activity
Specific Function:
Can catalyze the production of LTC4 from LTA4 and reduced glutathione. Can catalyze the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with reduced glutathione.
Gene Name:
MGST2
Uniprot ID:
Q99735
Molecular Weight:
16620.4 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Also functions as a glutathione peroxidase.
Gene Name:
MGST3
Uniprot ID:
O14880
Molecular Weight:
16516.185 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Ethanol. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]