Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:20 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:22 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0230
Identification
Common NameActinium-227
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionActinium is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol Ac and atomic number 89. Actinium-227 is the naturally occurring radioactive isotope of actinium and has a half-life of 21.772 years. Actinium-227 is also produced in milligram amounts by the neutron irradiation of 226Ra in nuclear reactors. Actinium-227 is an alpha and beta emitter. It is extremely radioactive, and is even more dangerous than plutonium. Ingesting even small amounts would be fatal. (1)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Radioactive
  • Radioactive Isotope
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(227)Ac
227Ac
Actinium, isotope of mass 227
Actinum 227
Chemical FormulaAc
Average Molecular Mass227.028 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass227.028 g/mol
CAS Registry Number14952-40-0
IUPAC Name(²²⁷Ac)actinium
Traditional Name(²²⁷Ac)actinium
SMILES[227Ac]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Ac/i1+0
InChI KeyInChIKey=QQINRWTZWGJFDB-IGMARMGPSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as homogeneous actinide compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
Sub ClassHomogeneous actinide compounds
Direct ParentHomogeneous actinide compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous actinide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceActinium is a silvery solid metal. Due to its intense radioactivity, actinium glows in the dark with a pale blue light. (1)
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point1323°K (1050°C, 1922°F)
Boiling Point3471°K (3198 °C, 5788 °F)
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0090000000-44a8c09b2316eedf36b3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-0090000000-44a8c09b2316eedf36b3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-0090000000-44a8c09b2316eedf36b3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-707ab2bd72306b354580View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-707ab2bd72306b354580View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0090000000-707ab2bd72306b354580View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (2) ; Inhalation (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe ionizing radiation produced by actinium causes cellular damage that includes DNA breakage, accurate or inaccurate repair, apoptosis, gene mutations, chromosomal change, and genetic instability. This leads to loss of normal cell and tissue homeostasis, and development of malignancy. Ionizing radiation that does not directly damage DNA can produce reactive oxygen intermediates that directly affect the stability of p53, an important enzyme in cell-cycle regulation, and produce oxidative damage to individual bases in DNA and point mutations by mispairing during DNA replication. (2)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Internalized radionuclides that emit α or β particles are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) (4). Actinium-227 undergoes alpha and beta decay.
Uses/SourcesActinium's radioactivity make it a valuable as a neutron source for energy. (1)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsActinium is extremely radioactive and thus poses a dangerous cancer risk. It can also cause acute radiation syndrome. (1)
SymptomsExposure to high doses of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome, which can cause skin burns, hair loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, disorientation, low blood pressure, headache, fatigue, weakness, fever, birth defects, illness, infection, and death. (2, 3)
TreatmentTreatment reversing the effects of irradiation is currently not possible. Anaesthetics and antiemetics are administered to counter the symptoms of exposure, as well as antibiotics for countering secondary infections due to the resulting immune system deficiency. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID105152
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID94864
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDActinium-227
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia. Actinium. Last Updated 3 July 2009. [Link]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Radiation poisoning. Last Updated 22 August 2009. [Link]
  4. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2012. Radiation: A Review of Human Carcinogens. IARC monograph, volume 100D. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for ionizing radiation. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]