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Record Information
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:21 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:24 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0245
Common Name2-Chlorophenol
ClassSmall Molecule
Description2-Chlorophenol or ortho-chlorophenol is a monochlorophenol isomer that has a chlorine atom in the ortho position. It has a medicinal taste and smell, and is a slightly acidic liquid. 2-Chlorophenol is used as a disinfectant agent (4).
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Disinfectant
  • Household Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
O-Chlorophenic acid
Pine-o disinfectant
Chemical FormulaC6H5ClO
Average Molecular Mass128.556 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass128.003 g/mol
CAS Registry Number95-57-8
IUPAC Name2-chlorophenol
Traditional Name2-chlorophenol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H5ClO/c7-5-3-1-2-4-6(5)8/h1-4,8H
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as o-chlorophenols. These are chlorophenols carrying a iodine at the C2 position of the benzene ring.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
Sub ClassPhenols
Direct ParentO-chlorophenols
Alternative Parents
  • 2-chlorophenol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting Point9.8°C
Boiling Point174.9°C
Solubility11.3 mg/mL at 25 °C [BANERJEE,S et al. (1980)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility14.8 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.97ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity32.84 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-01t9-9600000000-1d4acee3d22a14a5db15View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-01t9-9600000000-edc951b535cd8797ecb0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-01t9-9600000000-36ba32f2c81fdba5c49cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-d73dd58c0ba338baf362View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-1900000000-155e842681907a77ab61View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0f6y-9100000000-16457b8457f8eeeb6213View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-b09665ff92b1bb84bbf7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-4dadf1d813dabfadde62View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-b5f3263b999878602a26View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01t9-9500000000-f4ad7c462f1461f5237dView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (5) ; oral (5) ; dermal (5)
Mechanism of Toxicity2-chlorophenol works as a weak uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibitors of cellular respiration. The ability of chlorophenols to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation increases with increasing chlorination. In fact, studies indicate a concentration-dependent triphasic effect of chlorophenols on phosphorylation and cellular respiration. At low concentrations, uncoupling produces stimulation of the resting state respiration as a result of increased adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity in the absence of a phosphate acceptor.Inhibition of active respiration is also observed. At moderate concentrations, resting respiration is neither stimulated nor inhibited. Significant inhibition of respiration, associated with a breakdown of the electron transport process and decreased ATPase activity, occurs at very high concentrations. Uncoupling activity has been attributed to a protonophoric effect (a disruption of the energy gradient across the mitochondrial membrane resulting from distribution of chlorophenols in the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane), whereas inhibition of cellular respiration has been attributed to a direct action on intracellular proteins (3).
MetabolismAbsorption of 2-chlorophenol is favored in the stomach and the intestine. Absorption through the gastrointestinal tract is by simple diffusion and is expected to be both rapid and virtually complete.The metabolism of the 2-chlorophenol is principally via conjugation. The principal metabolite excreted is the glucuronide. Other metabolites are sulfate conjugates such as the ethereal sulfate. The metabobites are excreted in urine (3).
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1000-1580 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (5)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity (not listed by IARC). (2)
Uses/SourcesBreathing in contaminated air; drinking contaminated water; dermal and eye exposure (3).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health Effects2-chlorophenol is corrosive to epithelial tissue. It produce effects ranging from slight hyperemia to severe corrosion when applied to the corneas. Acute inhalation exposure may lead to hemorrhage in the lungs and tachypnea. Oral exposure to 2-chlorophenol can produce a variety of neurological effects, including tremors, myoclonic convulsions, a hunched posture, dyspnea, collapse, and coma (3).
SymptomsCough, shortness of breath and sore throat can result from inhalation of 2-chlorophenol. These symptoms may be delayed. Abdominal pain, drowsiness, weakness, and convulsions can result from ingestion as well as inhalation. Moreover, ingestion of 2-chlorophenol can cause restlessness, tremors, or central nervous system depression to occur. Eye exposure to 2-chlorophenol can lead to redness, pain, and blurred vision, while dermal contact can lead to redness and pain of the skin. Moreover, the substance can be rapidily absorbed after derma exposure (5).
TreatmentAvoid dilution following oral exposure; instead, administer charcoal as a slurry. Following inhalation, move patient to fresh air. Monitor for respiratory distress. If cough or difficulty breathing develops, evaluate for respiratory tract irritation, bronchitis, or pneumonitis. Administer oxygen and assist ventilation as required. Treat bronchospasm with inhaled beta2 agonist and oral or parenteral corticosteroids. In case the exposure occurs through eye contact, irrigate exposed eyes with copious amounts of room temperature water for at least 15 minutes. Following dermal exposure, remove phenol with undiluted polyethylene glycol 300 to 400 or isopropyl alcohol prior to washing, if readily available. Wash exposed areas twice or for at least 10 minutes with large quantities of soapy water. Water alone may be harmful. (1)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03110
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7245
ChemSpider ID13837686
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID47083
BioCyc IDCPD-10866
CTD IDC030683
Stitch ID2-Chlorophenol
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID1557
Wikipedia Link2-Chlorophenol
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Rumack BH (2009). POISINDEX(R) Information System. Englewood, CO: Micromedex, Inc. CCIS Volume 141, edition expires Aug, 2009.
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1999). Toxicological profile for chlorophenols. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. 2-Chlorophenol. Last Updated 20 May 2009. [Link]
  5. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1999). Poison Information Monograph for 2-Chlorophenol. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK14 is one of the four p38 MAPKs which play an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress leading to direct activation of transcription factors. Accordingly, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate a broad range of proteins and it has been estimated that they may have approximately 200 to 300 substrates each. Some of the targets are downstream kinases which are activated through phosphorylation and further phosphorylate additional targets. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 can directly phosphorylate and activate transcription factors such as CREB1, ATF1, the NF-kappa-B isoform RELA/NFKB3, STAT1 and STAT3, but can also phosphorylate histone H3 and the nucleosomal protein HMGN1. RPS6KA5/MSK1 and RPS6KA4/MSK2 play important roles in the rapid induction of immediate-early genes in response to stress or mitogenic stimuli, either by inducing chromatin remodeling or by recruiting the transcription machinery. On the other hand, two other kinase targets, MAPKAPK2/MK2 and MAPKAPK3/MK3, participate in the control of gene expression mostly at the post-transcriptional level, by phosphorylating ZFP36 (tristetraprolin) and ELAVL1, and by regulating EEF2K, which is important for the elongation of mRNA during translation. MKNK1/MNK1 and MKNK2/MNK2, two other kinases activated by p38 MAPKs, regulate protein synthesis by phosphorylating the initiation factor EIF4E2. MAPK14 interacts also with casein kinase II, leading to its activation through autophosphorylation and further phosphorylation of TP53/p53. In the cytoplasm, the p38 MAPK pathway is an important regulator of protein turnover. For example, CFLAR is an inhibitor of TNF-induced apoptosis whose proteasome-mediated degradation is regulated by p38 MAPK phosphorylation. In a similar way, MAPK14 phosphorylates the ubiquitin ligase SIAH2, regulating its activity towards EGLN3. MAPK14 may also inhibit the lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy by interfering with the intracellular trafficking of the transmembrane protein ATG9. Another function of MAPK14 is to regulate the endocytosis of membrane receptors by different mechanisms that impinge on the small GTPase RAB5A. In addition, clathrin-mediated EGFR internalization induced by inflammatory cytokines and UV irradiation depends on MAPK14-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR itself as well as of RAB5A effectors. Ectodomain shedding of transmembrane proteins is regulated by p38 MAPKs as well. In response to inflammatory stimuli, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate the membrane-associated metalloprotease ADAM17. Such phosphorylation is required for ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of TGF-alpha family ligands, which results in the activation of EGFR signaling and cell proliferation. Another p38 MAPK substrate is FGFR1. FGFR1 can be translocated from the extracellular space into the cytosol and nucleus of target cells, and regulates processes such as rRNA synthesis and cell growth. FGFR1 translocation requires p38 MAPK activation. In the nucleus, many transcription factors are phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAPKs in response to different stimuli. Classical examples include ATF1, ATF2, ATF6, ELK1, PTPRH, DDIT3, TP53/p53 and MEF2C and MEF2A. The p38 MAPKs are emerging as important modulators of gene expression by regulating chromatin modifiers and remodelers. The promoters of several genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as IL6, IL8 and IL12B, display a p38 MAPK-dependent enrichment of histone H3 phosphorylation on 'Ser-10' (H3S10ph) in LPS-stimulated myeloid cells. This phosphorylation enhances the accessibility of the cryptic NF-kappa-B-binding sites marking promoters for increased NF-kappa-B recruitment. Phosphorylates CDC25B and CDC25C which is required for binding to 14-3-3 proteins and leads to initiation of a G2 delay after ultraviolet radiation. Phosphorylates TIAR following DNA damage, releasing TIAR from GADD45A mRNA and preventing mRNA degradation. The p38 MAPKs may also have kinase-independent roles, which are thought to be due to the binding to targets in the absence of phosphorylation. Protein O-Glc-N-acylation catalyzed by the OGT is regulated by MAPK14, and, although OGT does not seem to be phosphorylated by MAPK14, their interaction increases upon MAPK14 activation induced by glucose deprivation. This interaction may regulate OGT activity by recruiting it to specific targets such as neurofilament H, stimulating its O-Glc-N-acylation. Required in mid-fetal development for the growth of embryo-derived blood vessels in the labyrinth layer of the placenta. Also plays an essential role in developmental and stress-induced erythropoiesis, through regulation of EPO gene expression. Isoform MXI2 activation is stimulated by mitogens and oxidative stress and only poorly phosphorylates ELK1 and ATF2. Isoform EXIP may play a role in the early onset of apoptosis. Phosphorylates S100A9 at 'Thr-113'.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
41292.885 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.92 uMNVS_NR_hPPARaNovascreen
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds DNA as a monomer to ROR response elements (RORE) containing a single core motif half-site 5'-AGGTCA-3' preceded by a short A-T-rich sequence. Considered to have intrinsic transcriptional activity, have some natural ligands such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and other retinoids which act as inverse agonists repressing the transcriptional activity. Required for normal postnatal development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Modulates rod photoreceptors differentiation at least by inducing the transcription factor NRL-mediated pathway. In cone photoreceptor cells, regulates transcription of OPN1SW. Involved in the regulation of the period length and stability of the circadian rhythm. May control cytoarchitectural patterning of neocortical neurons during development. May act in a dose-dependent manner to regulate barrel formation upon innervation of layer IV neurons by thalamocortical axons. May play a role in the suppression of osteoblastic differentiation through the inhibition of RUNX2 transcriptional activity (By similarity).Isoform 1 is critical for hindlimb motor control and for the differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells in the retina. Regulates the expression of PTF1A synergistically with FOXN4 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
53219.385 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.24 uMATG_RORb_TRANSAttagene
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]