Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:24 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:26 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0264
Identification
Common NameMethyl parathion
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionMethyl parathion is an organophosphate compound insecticide. It is used to kill insects on farm crops, especially cotton. As methyl parathion is toxic to non-target organisms, its use is banned or restricted in many areas. (12)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Ester
  • Organic Compound
  • Organophosphate
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
A-gro
Azofos
Azophos
Bladan m
Bladan-m
Cekumethion
DALF
Dalif
Demethylfenitrothion
Devithion
Dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphorothionate
Dimethyl o-p-nitrophenyl thioph osphate
Dimethyl o-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate
Dimethyl p-nitrophenyl monothiophosphate
Dimethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphorothionate
Dimethyl p-nitrophenyl thionophosphate
Dimethyl p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate
Dimethyl parathion
Dimethyl-p-nitrophenyl thionphosphate
Drexel methyl parathion 4E
Folid ol-m
Folidol 600
Folidol m
Folidol M 50
Folidol M-40
folidol-80
Folidol-m
Fosferno M 50
Fulkil
Kilex parathion
Liquid
M-parathion
Me-parathion
Mepaton
Meptox
Metacid 50
Metacide
Metafos
Metafos (pesticide)
Metaphor
Metaphos
Methyl 1605
Methyl fosferno
Methyl niran
Methyl-bladan
Methyl-E 605
Methylparathion
Methylparathione
Methylthiophos
Metron
Nitrox
Nitrox 80
O,O-Dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate
O,O-Dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) thiophosphate
O,O-dimethyl o-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate
O,O-dimethyl o-(p-nitrophenyl) thionophosphate
O,O-dimethyl O-(p-nitrophenyl) thiophosphate
O,O-Dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate
O,O-dimethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate
O,o-dimethyl o-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate
O,O-Dimethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate
Oleovofotox
OOo-dim ethyl o-p-nitrophenyl thiophosphate
P-nitrophenyldimethylthionophosphate
Parapest M-50
Parataf
Parathion methyl
Parathion-methyl
Parathion-methyl solution
Paratox
Paratuf
Parton-m
Partron m
Pencap m
Penncap m
Penncap MLS
Penncap-m
Phosphorothioic acid O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) ester
Phosphorothioic acid, O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) ester
Phosphorothioic acid, O,O-dimethyl O-(P-nitrophenyl) ester
Phosphorothioic acid, O,O-dimethyl-O-P-nitrophenyl ester
Quinophos
Sinafid M-48
Tekwaisa
Thiophenit
Thylpar M-50
Vofatox
Wofatox
Wofatox 50 EC
Wofatox 80
Wofotox
Yphos
Chemical FormulaC8H10NO5PS
Average Molecular Mass263.207 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass263.002 g/mol
CAS Registry Number298-00-0
IUPAC NameO,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate
Traditional NameO,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate
SMILESCOP(=S)(OC)OC1=CC=C(C=C1)[N+]([O-])=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C8H10NO5PS/c1-12-15(16,13-2)14-8-5-3-7(4-6-8)9(10)11/h3-6H,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=RLBIQVVOMOPOHC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenyl thiophosphates. These are organothiophosphorus compounds that contain a thiophosphoric acid O-esterified with a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic thiophosphoric acids and derivatives
Sub ClassThiophosphoric acid esters
Direct ParentPhenyl thiophosphates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenyl thiophosphate
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Nitroaromatic compound
  • Thiophosphate triester
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • C-nitro compound
  • Organic nitro compound
  • Organic oxoazanium
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Allyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point35.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.0377 mg/mL at 20°C [BOWMAN,BT & SANS,WW (1983)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.048 g/LALOGPS
logP2.97ALOGPS
logP2.6ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area73.51 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity63.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability22.74 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0090000000-f149917a154521689796View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-0090000000-b09ebd8ec7cbf546d5b5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-3930000000-5e7134c887ac983512bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03dl-0390000000-b7ca010fee8470d11e41View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0bt9-0490000000-64de000a22dd2c843695View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-1900000000-52cc498f3b745dbb473dView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-08i0-8940000000-3301525333bfb1ec241dView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (12) ; inhalation (12) ; dermal (12).
Mechanism of ToxicityMethyl parathion is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismMetabolism of organophosphates occurs principally by oxidation, by hydrolysis via esterases and by reaction with glutathione. Demethylation and glucuronidation may also occur. Oxidation of organophosphorus pesticides may result in moderately toxic products. In general, phosphorothioates are not directly toxic but require oxidative metabolism to the proximal toxin. The glutathione transferase reactions produce products that are, in most cases, of low toxicity. Paraoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of organophosphate exposure.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 417 mg/kg (Oral, Guinea pig) (7) LD50: 50 mg/kg (Intravenous, Guinea pig) (7) LD50: 300 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (5) LD50: 67 mg/kg (Percutaneous, Rabbit) (4)
Lethal Dose2.1 mg/kg for an adult human. (6)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (10)
Uses/SourcesMethyl parathion is an insecticide. It is used to kill insects on farm crops, especially cotton. (12)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.0007 mg/kg/day (9) Chronic Oral: 0.0003 mg/kg/day (9)
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsExposure to very high levels of methyl parathion may cause death, loss of consciousness, dizziness, confusion, headaches, difficult breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, tremors, blurred vision, and sweating. (12)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID4130
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDC14228
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID38746
BioCyc IDCPD-3721
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDMethyl parathion
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0264.pdf
General References
  1. Mutch E, Daly AK, Leathart JB, Blain PG, Williams FM: Do multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms contribute to parathion metabolism in man? Arch Toxicol. 2003 Jun;77(6):313-20. Epub 2003 Mar 21. [12669189 ]
  2. Costa LG, Richter RJ, Li WF, Cole T, Guizzetti M, Furlong CE: Paraoxonase (PON 1) as a biomarker of susceptibility for organophosphate toxicity. Biomarkers. 2003 Jan-Feb;8(1):1-12. [12519632 ]
  3. Abel EL, Bammler TK, Eaton DL: Biotransformation of methyl parathion by glutathione S-transferases. Toxicol Sci. 2004 Jun;79(2):224-32. Epub 2004 Apr 21. [15103050 ]
  4. Liden M, Eriksson U: Development of a versatile reporter assay for studies of retinol uptake and metabolism in vivo. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Nov 1;310(2):401-8. Epub 2005 Sep 8. [16150442 ]
  5. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  6. US Environmental Protection Agency (2001). OHM/TADS: Oil and Hazardous Materials/Technical Assistance Data System. Washington, DC (Internet Version). Edition expires 2001. Greenwood Village, CO: Thomson Healthcare Inc.
  7. IARC (1983). Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-Present. (Multivolume work).
  8. Worthing, CR and SB Walker (1987). The Pesticide Manual - A World Compendium. 8th ed. Thornton Heath, UK: The British Crop Protection Council.
  9. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  10. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  11. Wikipedia. Parathion. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
  12. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Toxicological profile for methyl parathion U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Toxicological profile for methyl parathion U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Keratin-binding protein required for epithelial cell polarization. Involved in apical junction complex (AJC) assembly via its interaction with PARD3. Required for ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
FBF1
Uniprot ID:
Q8TES7
Molecular Weight:
125445.19 Da
References
  1. Silva D, Cortez CM, Cunha-Bastos J, Louro SR: Methyl parathion interaction with human and bovine serum albumin. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Feb 28;147(1):53-61. [14700528 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.15 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.59 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2A6Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.62 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2B6Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.86 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP1A2Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.18 uMNVS_NR_hARNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible for the epoxidation of endogenous cardiac arachidonic acid pools.
Gene Name:
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID:
P51589
Molecular Weight:
57610.165 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.58 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2J2Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular Weight:
55710.075 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.05 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C18Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.55 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C9Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.43 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2D6Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.69 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP1A1Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.09 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP3A5Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform A: inactive in stimulating c-Src/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone.
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98979.96 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.90 uMNVS_NR_hPRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]