Record Information
Version2.0 (beta)
Creation Date2009-03-06 11:58:25 -0700
Update Date2014-10-20 10:25:01 -0600
Accession NumberT3D0275
Identification
Common NameAdamsite
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAdamsite is an organoarsenic compound which belongs to the group of chemical warfare agents known as vomiting agents or sneeze gases. Due to its toxicity, it is nowadays considered obsolete. Arsenic is a chemical element that has the symbol As and atomic number 33. It is a poisonous metalloid that has many allotropic forms: yellow (molecular non-metallic) and several black and grey forms (metalloids) are a few that are seen. Three metalloidal forms of arsenic with different crystal structures are found free in nature (the minerals arsenopyrite and the much rarer arsenolamprite and pararsenolamprite), but it is more commonly found as a compound with other elements. (6, 3)
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Arsenic Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
10-Chloro-5, 10-dihydrophenarsazine
10-chloro-5,10-dihydro-Phenarsazine
10-Chloro-5,10-dihydroarsacridine
5-Aza-10-arsenaanthracene chloride
Adamsit
Chloro diphenylaminearsine
Chlorophenarsazene
Diphenylamine chloroarsine
Diphenylaminechlorarsine
Diphenylaminechloroarsine
Diphenylaminochloroarsine
Phenarsazine chloride
Phenazarsine chloride
Chemical FormulaC12H9AsClN
Average Molecular Mass277.581 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass276.964 g/mol
CAS Registry Number578-94-9
IUPAC Name10-chloro-5,10-dihydrophenarsazinine
Traditional Nameadamsite
SMILESCl[As]1C2=CC=CC=C2NC2=CC=CC=C12
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H9AsClN/c14-13-9-5-1-3-7-11(9)15-12-8-4-2-6-10(12)13/h1-8,15H
InChI KeyInChIKey=PBNSPNYJYOYWTA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassMetalloheterocyclic Compounds
Sub ClassBenzarsazines and Derivatives
Direct ParentBenzazarsines and Derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Organic metalloid moeity
  • Benzenoid
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
  • Amine
  • Organoarsenic compound
  • Benzarsazine skeleton
  • Organic metalloid salt
  • Metalloid salt
Molecular FrameworkAromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceYellow or green crystals.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point195°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0468ALOGPS
logP3.88ALOGPS
logP3.54ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.27ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.03 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity59.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.07 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5); dermal (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityArsenic and its metabolites disrupt ATP production through several mechanisms. At the level of the citric acid cycle, arsenic inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase and by competing with phosphate it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, thus inhibiting energy-linked reduction of NAD+, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP synthesis. Hydrogen peroxide production is also increased, which might form reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Arsenic's carginogenicity is influenced by the arsenical binding of tubulin, which results in aneuploidy, polyploidy and mitotic arrests. The binding of other arsenic protein targets may also cause altered DNA repair enzyme activity, altered DNA methylation patterns and cell proliferation. (2, 1)
MetabolismArsenic is absorbed mainly by inhalation or ingestion, as to a lesser extent, dermal exposure. It is then distributed throughout the body, where it is reduced into arsenite if necessary, then methylated into monomethylarsenic (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) by arsenite methyltransferase. Arsenic and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine. Arsenic is known to induce the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which decreases the toxic effects of arsenic and other metals by binding them and making them biologically inactive, as well as acting as an antioxidant. (7)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 35 mg/kg (Intravenous, Mouse) (4)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (10)
Uses/SourcesAdamsite is used mainly as a riot control agent. (6)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Oral: 0.005 mg/kg/day (9) Chronic Oral: 0.0003 mg/kg/day (9) Chronic Inhalation: 0.01 mg/m3 (9)
Health EffectsArsenic poisoning can lead to death from multi-system organ failure, probably from necrotic cell death, not apoptosis. Arsenic is also a known carcinogen, esepcially in skin, liver, bladder and lung cancers. (2, 7)
SymptomsExposure to lower levels of arsenic can cause nausea and vomiting, decreased production of red and white blood cells, abnormal heart rhythm, damage to blood vessels, and a sensation of
TreatmentArsenic poisoning can be treated by chelation therapy, using chelating agents such as dimercaprol, EDTA or DMSA. Charcoal tablets may also be used for less severe cases. In addition, maintaining a diet high in sulfur helps eliminate arsenic from the body. (7)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID11362
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID10884
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC010283
Stitch IDAdamsite
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0275.pdf
General References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
  2. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  3. Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2008). Adamsite (DM) Vomiting Agent. [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Arsenic toxicity. Last Updated 22 February 2009. [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Metallothionein. Last Updated 20 December 2008. [Link]
  9. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  10. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  11. Lachrymation [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Involved in skeletal muscle thin filament assembly
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTC1
Uniprot ID:
P68032
Molecular Weight:
42018.6 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells
Gene Name:
ACTA1
Uniprot ID:
P68133
Molecular Weight:
42052.0 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTA2
Uniprot ID:
P62736
Molecular Weight:
42008.57 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Involved in substantia nigra development
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTB
Uniprot ID:
P60709
Molecular Weight:
41736.37 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Involved in sarcomere organization
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTG1
Uniprot ID:
P63261
Molecular Weight:
41792.48 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Involved in muscle contraction
Specific Function:
Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Gene Name:
ACTG2
Uniprot ID:
P63267
Molecular Weight:
41876.495 Da
References
  1. Menzel DB, Hamadeh HK, Lee E, Meacher DM, Said V, Rasmussen RE, Greene H, Roth RN: Arsenic binding proteins from human lymphoblastoid cells. Toxicol Lett. 1999 Mar 29;105(2):89-101. [10221271 ]
General Function:
Involved in response to UV
Specific Function:
Involved in DNA excision repair. Initiates repair by binding to damaged sites with various affinities, depending on the photoproduct and the transcriptional state of the region. Required for UV-induced CHEK1 phosphorylation and the recruitment of CEP164 to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPD), sites of DNA damage after UV irradiation.
Gene Name:
XPA
Uniprot ID:
P23025
Molecular Weight:
31367.71 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
DLAT
Uniprot ID:
P10515
Molecular Weight:
65782.0 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Involved in transcription factor activity
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66217.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action:as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon growth hormone (GH) stimulation and could reveal an essential role of hepatic GR in the control of body growth
Gene Name:
NR3C1
Uniprot ID:
P04150
Molecular Weight:
85660.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
RNA processing and modification
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular Weight:
56258.0 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide
Specific Function:
As a result of hemolysis, hemoglobin is found to accumulate in the kidney and is secreted in the urine. Haptoglobin captures, and combines with free plasma hemoglobin to allow hepatic recycling of heme iron and to prevent kidney damage. Haptoglobin also acts as an Antimicrobial; Antioxidant, has antibacterial activity and plays a role in modulating many aspects of the acute phase response. Hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes are rapidely cleared by the macrophage CD163 scavenger receptor expressed on the surface of liver Kupfer cells through an endocytic lysosomal degradation pathway.Uncleaved haptoglogin, also known as zonulin, plays a role in intestinal permeability, allowing intercellular tight junction disassembly, and controlling the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens.
Gene Name:
HP
Uniprot ID:
P00738
Molecular Weight:
45205.065 Da
References
  1. Naranmandura H, Suzuki KT: Identification of the major arsenic-binding protein in rat plasma as the ternary dimethylarsinous-hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008 Mar;21(3):678-85. doi: 10.1021/tx700383g. Epub 2008 Feb 2. [18247522 ]
General Function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15126.0 Da
References
  1. Naranmandura H, Suzuki KT: Identification of the major arsenic-binding protein in rat plasma as the ternary dimethylarsinous-hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008 Mar;21(3):678-85. doi: 10.1021/tx700383g. Epub 2008 Feb 2. [18247522 ]
General Function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15867.0 Da
References
  1. Naranmandura H, Suzuki KT: Identification of the major arsenic-binding protein in rat plasma as the ternary dimethylarsinous-hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008 Mar;21(3):678-85. doi: 10.1021/tx700383g. Epub 2008 Feb 2. [18247522 ]
General Function:
Involved in transcription, DNA-templated
Specific Function:
Acts as a substrate adapter protein for the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by CUL3 and RBX1 and targets NFE2L2/NRF2 for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, thus resulting in the suppression of its transcriptional activity and the repression of antioxidant response element-mediated detoxifying enzyme gene expression. Retains NFE2L2/NRF2 and may also retain BPTF in the cytosol. Targets PGAM5 for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome.
Gene Name:
KEAP1
Uniprot ID:
Q14145
Molecular Weight:
69665.765 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This modification follows DNA damages and appears as an obligatory step in a detection/signaling pathway leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks
Gene Name:
PARP1
Uniprot ID:
P09874
Molecular Weight:
113085.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A6NKZ8
Molecular Weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q99867
Molecular Weight:
Not Available
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain (By similarity)
Gene Name:
TUBA4B
Uniprot ID:
Q9H853
Molecular Weight:
27547.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular Weight:
43296.0 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular Weight:
42934.0 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It contains multiple copies of three enzymatic components:pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3)
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular Weight:
39220.0 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Involved in small molecule metabolic process
Specific Function:
Required for anchoring dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) to the dihydrolipoamide transacetylase (E2) core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes of eukaryotes. This specific binding is essential for a functional PDH complex.
Gene Name:
PDHX
Uniprot ID:
O00330
Molecular Weight:
54121.76 Da
References
  1. Klaassen C and Watkins J (2003). Casarett and Doull's Essentials of Toxicology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
General Function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific Function:
Thioredoxin + NADP(+) = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
Gene Name:
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID:
Q16881
Molecular Weight:
54707.0 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox- regulated cell signaling
Gene Name:
TXNRD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NNW7
Molecular Weight:
56460.0 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Involved in spermatogenesis
Specific Function:
Displays thioredoxin reductase, glutaredoxin and glutathione reductase activities. Catalyzes disulfide bond isomerization. Promotes disulfide bond formation between GPX4 and various sperm proteins and may play a role in sperm maturation by promoting formation of sperm structural components (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TXNRD3
Uniprot ID:
Q86VQ6
Molecular Weight:
70682.52 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of sensations such as cold, pain or sounds perception. Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes. Also involved in pain sensation triggered by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers. Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Not involved in menthol sensation. May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127381.0 Da
References
  1. Lachrymation [Link]
General Function:
Involved in protein polymerization
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBAL3
Uniprot ID:
A6NHL2
Molecular Weight:
49908.305 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBA1A
Uniprot ID:
Q71U36
Molecular Weight:
50136.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBA1B
Uniprot ID:
P68363
Molecular Weight:
50152.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQE3
Molecular Weight:
49896.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBA3C
Uniprot ID:
Q13748
Molecular Weight:
49960.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain (By similarity)
Gene Name:
TUBA3E
Uniprot ID:
Q6PEY2
Molecular Weight:
49917.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBA4A
Uniprot ID:
P68366
Molecular Weight:
49925.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in cell structure
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBA8
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY65
Molecular Weight:
50094.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBB
Uniprot ID:
P07437
Molecular Weight:
49671.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBB1
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4B7
Molecular Weight:
50328.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain (By similarity)
Gene Name:
TUBB2A
Uniprot ID:
Q13885
Molecular Weight:
49908.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain (By similarity)
Gene Name:
TUBB2B
Uniprot ID:
Q9BVA1
Molecular Weight:
49954.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBB3
Uniprot ID:
Q13509
Molecular Weight:
50433.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBB4
Uniprot ID:
P04350
Molecular Weight:
49586.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBB2C
Uniprot ID:
P68371
Molecular Weight:
49832.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain (By similarity)
Gene Name:
TUBB6
Uniprot ID:
Q9BUF5
Molecular Weight:
49858.0 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in protein polymerization
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TUBB8
Uniprot ID:
Q3ZCM7
Molecular Weight:
49775.655 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]
General Function:
Involved in protein polymerization
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
A6NNZ2
Molecular Weight:
49572.265 Da
References
  1. Kitchin KT, Wallace K: The role of protein binding of trivalent arsenicals in arsenic carcinogenesis and toxicity. J Inorg Biochem. 2008 Mar;102(3):532-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2007.10.021. Epub 2007 Nov 22. [18164070 ]