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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-22 21:22:14 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:31 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0672
Identification
Common NameAdenosylcobalamin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAdenosylcobalamin is one of two metabolically active forms synthesized upon ingestion of vitamin B12 and is the predominant form in the liver; it acts as a coenzyme in the reaction catalyzed by methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. A cobalamin (cbl) derivative in which the substituent is deoxyadenosyl. It is one of two metabolically active forms synthesized upon ingestion of vitamin B12 and is the predominant form in the liver; it acts as a coenzyme in the reaction catalyzed by methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM; E.C. 5.4.99.2). Inborn errors of vitamin B12 metabolism are autosomal recessive disorders and have been classified into nine distinct complementation classes. Disorders affecting adenosylcobalamin cause methylmalonic acidemia and metabolic acidosis. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase catalyzes the conversion of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA and uses adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor. Cbl must be transported into mitochondria, reduced and adenosylated before it can be utilized by MCM. (2).
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Cobalt Compound
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Organometallic
  • Pollutant
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(5'-Deoxy-5'-adenosyl)cobamide coenzyme
5'-Deoxy-5'-adenosyl vitamin B12
5'-Deoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamin
Adenosylcobalamin 5'-phosphate
Calomide
Cobalamin coenzyme
Cobamamide
Cobamamide 5'-phosphate
Cobamide coenzyme
Coenzyme B12
Deoxyadenosylcobalamin
Dibencozide
Funacomide
Vitamin B12 coenzyme
Vitamin B12 coenzymes
Chemical FormulaC72H100CoN18O17P
Average Molecular Mass1579.582 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass1578.658 g/mol
CAS Registry Number13870-90-1
IUPAC Name(10S,12R,13S,17R,23R,24R,25R,30S,35S,36S,40S,41S,42R,46R)-1-{[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl}-30,35,40-tris(2-carbamoylethyl)-24,36,41-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-46-hydroxy-12-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6,17,23,28,31,31,36,38,41,42-undecamethyl-15,20-dioxo-11,14,16-trioxa-2lambda5,9,19,26,43lambda5,44lambda5,45lambda5-heptaaza-15lambda5-phospha-1-cobaltadodecacyclo[27.14.1.1^{1,34}.1^{2,9}.1^{10,13}.0^{1,26}.0^{3,8}.0^{23,27}.0^{25,42}.0^{32,44}.0^{39,43}.0^{37,45}]heptatetraconta-2(47),3,5,7,27,29(44),32,34(45),37,39(43)-decaene-2,43,44,45-tetrakis(ylium)-1,1,1-triuid-15-olate
Traditional Name(10S,12R,13S,17R,23R,24R,25R,30S,35S,36S,40S,41S,42R,46R)-1-{[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl}-30,35,40-tris(2-carbamoylethyl)-24,36,41-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-46-hydroxy-12-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6,17,23,28,31,31,36,38,41,42-undecamethyl-15,20-dioxo-11,14,16-trioxa-2lambda5,9,19,26,43lambda5,44lambda5,45lambda5-heptaaza-15lambda5-phospha-1-cobaltadodecacyclo[27.14.1.1^{1,34}.1^{2,9}.1^{10,13}.0^{1,26}.0^{3,8}.0^{23,27}.0^{25,42}.0^{32,44}.0^{39,43}.0^{37,45}]heptatetraconta-2(47),3,5,7,27,29(44),32,34(45),37,39(43)-decaene-2,43,44,45-tetrakis(ylium)-1,1,1-triuid-15-olate
SMILES[C@H]1(C[Co-3]2345[N+]6=C7C(C)=C8N2[C@]([H])([C@H](CC(=O)N)[C@]8(CCC(=O)NC[C@@H](C)OP([O-])(=O)O[C@@H]2[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](N8C=[N+]3C3=CC(C)=C(C)C=C83)[C@@H]2O)C)[C@@]2(C)[C@@](CC(=O)N)([C@H](CCC(=O)N)C(C(C)=C3[N+]4=C(C=C6C([C@@H]7CCC(=O)N)(C)C)[C@@H](CCC(=O)N)[C@@]3(CC(=O)N)C)=[N+]52)C)O[C@@H](N2C3=NC=NC(=C3N=C2)N)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C62H90N13O14P.C10H12N5O3.Co/c1-29-20-39-40(21-30(29)2)75(28-70-39)57-52(84)53(41(27-76)87-57)89-90(85,86)88-31(3)26-69-49(83)18-19-59(8)37(22-46(66)80)56-62(11)61(10,25-48(68)82)36(14-17-45(65)79)51(74-62)33(5)55-60(9,24-47(67)81)34(12-15-43(63)77)38(71-55)23-42-58(6,7)35(13-16-44(64)78)50(72-42)32(4)54(59)73-56;1-4-6(16)7(17)10(18-4)15-3-14-5-8(11)12-2-13-9(5)15;/h20-21,23,28,31,34-37,41,52-53,56-57,76,84H,12-19,22,24-27H2,1-11H3,(H15,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,71,72,73,74,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,85,86);2-4,6-7,10,16-17H,1H2,(H2,11,12,13);/q;;+2/p-2/t31-,34-,35-,36-,37+,41-,52-,53-,56-,57+,59-,60+,61+,62+;4-,6-,7-,10-;/m11./s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZIHHMGTYZOSFRC-OUCXYWSSSA-L
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cobalamin derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a corrin ring, a cobalt atom, an a nucleotide moiety. Cobalamin Derivatives are actually derived from vitamin B12.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassCorrinoids
Direct ParentCobalamin derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cobalamin
  • Metallotetrapyrrole skeleton
  • Pentose phosphate
  • 5'-deoxyribonucleoside
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Benzimidazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Monosaccharide
  • Benzenoid
  • Fatty amide
  • Imidolactam
  • Fatty acyl
  • Azole
  • Pyrroline
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxamide group
  • Lactam
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Organic transition metal salt
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic metal salt
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Metalloheterocycle
  • Primary amine
  • Transition metal alkyl
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic transition metal moeity
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic salt
  • Organometallic compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.81ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count20ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count12ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area536.31 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count19ChemAxon
Refractivity397.85 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability156.67 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings15ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03gr-0000090000-f5df403beb850a292d0bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900040000-ed6c6c002610b7ab553eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-0901110000-266010a6f5044281e0a2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0311090000-bcf52e2287204098f35bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0910150000-7300dca7a4307d4f5d86JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-2900020000-07426c150ede87d36c66JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (3) ; oral (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityCobalt is believed to exhibit its toxicity through a oxidant-based and free radical-based processes. It produces oxygen radicals and may be oxidized to ionic cobalt, causing increased lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and inducing certain enzymes that lead to cell apoptosis. Cobalt has also been shown to block inorganic calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. Cobalt can also chelate lipoic acids, impairing oxidation of pyruvate or fatty acids. In addition, cobalt may inhibit DNA repair by interacting with zinc finger DNA repair proteins, and has also been shown to inhibit heme synthesis and glucose metabolism. Cobalt may activate specific helper T-lymphocyte cells and interact directly with immunologic proteins, such as antibodies (IgA and IgE) or Fc receptors, resulting in immunosensitization. (3)
MetabolismCobalt is absorbed though the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Since it is a component of the vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), it is distributed to most tissues of the body. It is transported in the blood, often bound to albumin, with the highest levels being found in the liver and kidney. Cobalt is excreted mainly in the urine and faeces. (3)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 5000 mg/kg (Oral, Guinea pig) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (6)
Uses/SourcesCobamamide is a form of vitamin B12. (8)
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Inhalation: 0.0001 mg/m3 (5) Intermediate Oral: 0.01 mg/kg/day (5)
Health EffectsExposure to high amount of cobalt can cause heart, lung, kidney, and liver damage. Skin contact is known to result in contact dermatitis. Cobalt may also have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. (3, 4)
SymptomsCobalt inhalation can cause asthma-like breathing problems. Skin contact is known to result in contact dermatitis, which is characterized by irritation and rashes. Ingesting large amounts of cobalt may cause nausea and vomiting. (9)
TreatmentTreatment of cobalt poisoning is symptomatic. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB02086
PubChem Compound ID6436143
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDC00194
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID236270 , 251000 , 251100 , 251110 , 277380 , 277400 , 277410
ChEBI ID18408
BioCyc IDADENOSYLCOBALAMIN-5-P
CTD IDC000913
Stitch IDCobamamide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAdenosylcobalamin
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Amirtharaj GJ, Natarajan SK, Mukhopadhya A, Zachariah UG, Hegde SK, Kurian G, Balasubramanian KA, Ramachandran A: Fatty acids influence binding of cobalt to serum albumin in patients with fatty liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 May;1782(5):349-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2008.02.006. Epub 2008 Feb 29. [18346470 ]
  2. Moras E, Hosack A, Watkins D, Rosenblatt DS: Mitochondrial vitamin B12-binding proteins in patients with inborn errors of cobalamin metabolism. Mol Genet Metab. 2007 Feb;90(2):140-7. Epub 2006 Sep 29. [17011224 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for cobalt. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Cobalt. Last Updated 21 March 2009. [Link]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  7. ScienceLab.com (2008). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Cobamamide. [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Vitamin B12. Last Updated 3 June 2009. [Link]
  9. U.S. National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus: Cobalt poisoning. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
References
  1. Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  2. Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
References
  1. Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  2. Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular Weight:
35032.075 Da
References
  1. Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  2. Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
P22557
Molecular Weight:
64632.86 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Mercury poisoning. Last Updated 8 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Molecular Weight:
70580.325 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Mercury poisoning. Last Updated 8 March 2009. [Link]
6. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for cobalt. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Involved in DNA excision repair. Initiates repair by binding to damaged sites with various affinities, depending on the photoproduct and the transcriptional state of the region. Required for UV-induced CHEK1 phosphorylation and the recruitment of CEP164 to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPD), sites of DNA damage after UV irradiation.
Gene Name:
XPA
Uniprot ID:
P23025
Molecular Weight:
31367.71 Da
References
  1. Hartwig A, Asmuss M, Ehleben I, Herzer U, Kostelac D, Pelzer A, Schwerdtle T, Burkle A: Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct;110 Suppl 5:797-9. [12426134 ]
General Function:
Antigen binding
Specific Function:
Ig alpha is the major immunoglobulin class in body secretions. It may serve both to defend against local infection and to prevent access of foreign antigens to the general immunologic system.
Gene Name:
IGHA1
Uniprot ID:
P01876
Molecular Weight:
37654.29 Da
References
  1. Bencko V, Wagner V, Wagnerova M, Reichrtova E: Immuno-biochemical findings in groups of individuals occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to emissions containing nickel and cobalt. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1983;27(4):387-94. [6663071 ]
General Function:
Antigen binding
Specific Function:
Ig alpha is the major immunoglobulin class in body secretions. It may serve both to defend against local infection and to prevent access of foreign antigens to the general immunologic system.
Gene Name:
IGHA2
Uniprot ID:
P01877
Molecular Weight:
36526.005 Da
References
  1. Bencko V, Wagner V, Wagnerova M, Reichrtova E: Immuno-biochemical findings in groups of individuals occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to emissions containing nickel and cobalt. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1983;27(4):387-94. [6663071 ]
General Function:
Immunoglobulin receptor binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
IGHE
Uniprot ID:
P01854
Molecular Weight:
47018.665 Da
References
  1. Shirakawa T, Kusaka Y, Fujimura N, Goto S, Morimoto K: The existence of specific antibodies to cobalt in hard metal asthma. Clin Allergy. 1988 Sep;18(5):451-60. [3233723 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This modification follows DNA damages and appears as an obligatory step in a detection/signaling pathway leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks. Mediates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of APLF and CHFR. Positively regulates the transcription of MTUS1 and negatively regulates the transcription of MTUS2/TIP150. With EEF1A1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T-helper 1 (Th1) cell-specific transcription factor and binds the promoter of IFN-gamma to directly regulate its transcription, and is thus involved importantly in Th1 cytokine production. Required for PARP9 and DTX3L recruitment to DNA damage sites. PARP1-dependent PARP9-DTX3L-mediated ubiquitination promotes the rapid and specific recruitment of 53BP1/TP53BP1, UIMC1/RAP80, and BRCA1 to DNA damage sites.
Gene Name:
PARP1
Uniprot ID:
P09874
Molecular Weight:
113082.945 Da
References
  1. Hartwig A, Asmuss M, Ehleben I, Herzer U, Kostelac D, Pelzer A, Schwerdtle T, Burkle A: Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct;110 Suppl 5:797-9. [12426134 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function.
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA).
Gene Name:
CACNA1D
Uniprot ID:
Q01668
Molecular Weight:
245138.75 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1F gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA).
Gene Name:
CACNA1F
Uniprot ID:
O60840
Molecular Weight:
220675.9 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1S subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular Weight:
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q02641
Molecular Weight:
65712.995 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB2
Uniprot ID:
Q08289
Molecular Weight:
73579.925 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB3
Uniprot ID:
P54284
Molecular Weight:
54531.425 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB4
Uniprot ID:
O00305
Molecular Weight:
58168.625 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. N-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing alpha-1B subunit may play a role in directed migration of immature neurons.
Gene Name:
CACNA1B
Uniprot ID:
Q00975
Molecular Weight:
262493.84 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1A gives rise to P and/or Q-type calcium currents. P/Q-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by the funnel toxin (Ftx) and by the omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), and omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA).
Gene Name:
CACNA1A
Uniprot ID:
O00555
Molecular Weight:
282362.39 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1E gives rise to R-type calcium currents. R-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by nickel, and partially by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA), and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing alpha-1E subunit could be involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons which is important for information processing.
Gene Name:
CACNA1E
Uniprot ID:
Q15878
Molecular Weight:
261729.05 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only as a multiple subunit complex.
Gene Name:
CACNG1
Uniprot ID:
Q06432
Molecular Weight:
25028.105 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y698
Molecular Weight:
35965.44 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNG3
Uniprot ID:
O60359
Molecular Weight:
35548.14 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBN1
Molecular Weight:
36578.39 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Modulates their gating properties by accelerating their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Displays subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation. Shows specificity for GRIA1, GRIA4 and the long isoform of GRIA2. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNG5
Uniprot ID:
Q9UF02
Molecular Weight:
30902.44 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG6
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXT2
Molecular Weight:
28128.745 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Displays subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation. Shows specificity only for GRIA1 and GRIA2. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG7
Uniprot ID:
P62955
Molecular Weight:
31002.29 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.
Gene Name:
CACNG8
Uniprot ID:
Q8WXS5
Molecular Weight:
43312.44 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state. Modulates calcium current when coexpressed with CACNA1G (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TMEM37
Uniprot ID:
Q8WXS4
Molecular Weight:
20931.565 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNA2D1
Uniprot ID:
P54289
Molecular Weight:
124566.93 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Acts as a regulatory subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel (CACNA1A), N-type (CACNA1B), L-type (CACNA1C OR CACNA1D) and possibly T-type (CACNA1G). Overexpression induces apoptosis.
Gene Name:
CACNA2D2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY47
Molecular Weight:
129816.095 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Acts as a regulatory subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel (CACNA1A), N-type (CACNA1B), L-type (CACNA1C OR CACNA1D) but not T-type (CACNA1G) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNA2D3
Uniprot ID:
Q8IZS8
Molecular Weight:
123010.22 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel.
Gene Name:
CACNA2D4
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z3S7
Molecular Weight:
127936.93 Da
References
  1. Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]