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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-27 01:53:38 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:45 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0745
Identification
Common NameZinc sulfide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionZinc sulfide is a sulfide of zinc. It occurs naturally as the mineral sphalerite. Zinc sulfide is a semiconductor and is used as an infrared optical material and as phosphor in applications such as cathode ray tubes and glow in the dark products. Zinc is a metallic element with the atomic number 30. It is found in nature most often as the mineral sphalerite. Though excess zinc in harmful, in smaller amounts it is an essential element for life, as it is a cofactor for over 300 enzymes and is found in just as many transcription factors. (2, 3, 4)
Compound Type
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Natural Compound
  • Zinc Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Albalith
C.I. Pigment White 7
CI Pigment White 7
Cleartran
Irtran 2
Pigment White 7
Sachtolith
Sachtolith HD-s
Sphalerite
Wurtzite
Zinc blende
Zinc monosulfide
Zinc sulfide, phosphor
Zinc sulphide
Zincblende
ZnS
Chemical FormulaSZn
Average Molecular Mass97.474 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass95.901 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1314-98-3
IUPAC Namesulfanylidenezinc
Traditional Namezinc sulfide
SMILESS=[Zn]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/S.Zn
InChI KeyInChIKey=WGPCGCOKHWGKJJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal sulfides. These are inorganic compounds containing a sulfur atom of an oxidation state of -2, in which the heaviest atom bonded to the oxygen is a transition metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassTransition metal organides
Sub ClassTransition metal sulfides
Direct ParentTransition metal sulfides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Transition metal sulfide
  • Inorganic sulfide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite to yellow powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point1185°C (sublim)
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity9.43 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability5.07 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-0ba11eba39be2541af97JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-0ba11eba39be2541af97JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-0ba11eba39be2541af97JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (3) ; oral (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityAnaemia results from the excessive absorption of zinc suppressing copper and iron absorption, most likely through competitive binding of intestinal mucosal cells. Unbalanced levels of copper and zinc binding to Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase has been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Stomach acid dissolves metallic zinc to give corrosive zinc chloride, which can cause damage to the stomach lining. Metal fume fever is thought to be an immune response to inhaled zinc. (2, 3, 1)
MetabolismZinc can enter the body through the lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal absorption of zinc is controlled by zinc carrier protein CRIP. Zinc also binds to metallothioneins, which help prevent absorption of excess zinc. Zinc is widely distributed and found in all tissues and tissues fluids, concentrating in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin, lung, brain, heart, and pancreas. In the bloodstream zinc is found bound to carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes, as well as bound to albumin, _2-macroglobulin, and amino acids in the the plasma. Albumin and amino acid bound zinc can diffuse across tissue membranes. Zinc is excreted in the urine and faeces. (3)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: >2000 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (7) LD50: >2000 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) (7) LC50: 5040 mg/m3 (Inhalation, Rat) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesZinc sulfide is a semiconductor and is used as an infrared optical material and as phosphor in applications such as cathode ray tubes and glow in the dark products. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelIntermediate Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (6) Chronic Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (6)
Health EffectsChronic exposure to zinc causes anemia, atazia, lethargy, and decreases the level of good cholesterol in the body. It is also believed to cause pancreatic and reproductive damage. (3)
SymptomsIngestion of large doses of zinc causes stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Acute inhalation of large amounts of zinc causes metal fume fever, which is characterized by chills, fever, headache, weakness, dryness of the nose and throat, chest pain, and coughing. Dermal contact with zinc results in skin irritation. (3)
TreatmentZinc poisoning is treated symptomatically, often by administering fluids such as water or milk, or with gastric lavage. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID14821
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID14137
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC031238
Stitch IDZinc sulfide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID10638
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0745.pdf
General References
  1. Vonk WI, Klomp LW: Role of transition metals in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1322-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0361322. [19021549 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Zinc. Last Updated 24 March 2009. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for zinc. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Zinc sulfide. Last Updated 23 March 2009. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Metallothionein. Last Updated 20 December 2008. [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  7. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2006). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for zinc sulfide. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
Molecular Weight:
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Vonk WI, Klomp LW: Role of transition metals in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1322-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0361322. [19021549 ]