Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-04-04 04:53:04 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:47 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0765
Identification
Common NameSilver cyanide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSilver cyanide is a chemical compound of silver and cyanide. Silver is a metallic element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. It occurs naturally in its pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. (9, 10)
Compound Type
  • Cyanide Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Silver Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
AgCN
Argentous cyanide
Silver(I)cyanide
Chemical FormulaCAgN
Average Molecular Mass133.886 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass132.908 g/mol
CAS Registry Number506-64-9
IUPAC Namesilver(1+) ion iminomethanide
Traditional Namesilver(1+) ion cyanide
SMILES[Ag+].[C-]#N
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/CN.Ag/c1-2;/q-1;+1
InChI KeyInChIKey=LFAGQMCIGQNPJG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as transition metal nitrides. These are inorganic compounds of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of -3, and the heaviest metal atom is a transition metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassTransition metal organides
Sub ClassTransition metal nitrides
Direct ParentTransition metal nitrides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Transition metal nitride
  • Transition metal cyanide salt
  • Inorganic silver salt
  • Inorganic nitride
  • Inorganic salt
  • Inorganic cyanide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point320°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.023 mg/mL at 20°C [DIXON,D & RISSMANN,E (1985)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility67.9 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.51ALOGPS
logP-0.35ChemAxon
logS-0.29ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area23.79 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity15.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability2.07 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-ff88ac7448da67a3cbe6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-ff88ac7448da67a3cbe6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-ff88ac7448da67a3cbe6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-44a2f161b2005d3cb829View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-44a2f161b2005d3cb829View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-44a2f161b2005d3cb829View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (7) ; oral (7) ; dermal (7)
Mechanism of ToxicityCyanide is an inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in the fourth complex of the electron transport chain (found in the membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells). It complexes with the ferric iron atom in this enzyme. The binding of cyanide to this cytochrome prevents transport of electrons from cytochrome c oxidase to oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted and the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy. Tissues that mainly depend on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected. Cyanide is also known produce some of its toxic effects by binding to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, hydroxocobalamin, phosphatase, tyrosinase, ascorbic acid oxidase, xanthine oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Cyanide binds to the ferric ion of methemoglobin to form inactive cyanmethemoglobin. Metallic silver is oxidized and may deposit in the tissues, causing arygria. The silver ion is known to inhibit glutathione peroxidase and NA+,K+-ATPase activity, disrupting selenium-catalyzed sulfhydryl oxidation-reduction reactions and intracellular ion concentrations, respectively. Silver nanoparticles are believed to disrupt the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing oxidative stress, reduced ATP synthesis, and DNA damage. (9, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8)
MetabolismCyanide is rapidly alsorbed through oral, inhalation, and dermal routes and distributed throughout the body. Cyanide is mainly metabolized into thiocyanate by either rhodanese or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase. Cyanide metabolites are excreted in the urine. Silver compounds can also be absorbed orally and dermally. It distributes throughout the body in the blood, particularily to the liver. Insoluble silver salts are transformed into soluble silver sulfide albuminates, bind to amino or carboxyl groups in RNA, DNA, and proteins, or are reduced to metallic silver by ascorbic acid or catecholamines. Metallic silver is oxidized and may deposit in the tissues, causing arygria. Silver is eliminated primarily in the faeces. (9, 7)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 123 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (5)
Lethal Dose200 to 300 milligrams for an adult human (cyanide salts). (6)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsExposure to high levels of cyanide for a short time harms the brain and heart and can even cause coma, seizures, apnea, cardiac arrest and death. Chronic inhalation of cyanide causes breathing difficulties, chest pain, vomiting, blood changes, headaches, and enlargement of the thyroid gland. Skin contact with cyanide salts can irritate and produce sores. Exposure to high levels of silver for a long period of time may result in a condition called arygria, a blue-gray discoloration of the skin and other body tissues. Argyria is a permanent effect but does not appear to be harmful to health. While silver itself is not toxic, most silver salts are, and may damage the liver, kidney, and central nervous system, as well as be carcinogenic. (9, 10, 11, 7, 8)
SymptomsCyanide poisoning is identified by rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath, general weakness, giddiness, headaches, vertigo, confusion, convulsions/seizures and eventually loss of consciousness. Exposure to high levels of silver for a long period of time may result in a condition called arygria, a blue-gray discoloration of the skin and other body tissues. Argyria is a permanent effect but does not appear to be harmful to health. Exposure to high levels of silver in the air has resulted in breathing problems, lung and throat irritation, and stomach pains. Skin contact with silver can cause mild allergic reactions such as rash, swelling, and inflammation in some people. (9, 7, 8)
TreatmentAntidotes to cyanide poisoning include hydroxocobalamin and sodium nitrite, which release the cyanide from the cytochrome system, and rhodanase, which is an enzyme occurring naturally in mammals that combines serum cyanide with thiosulfate, producing comparatively harmless thiocyanate. Oxygen therapy can also be administered. (8)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID2724003
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID18984171
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDSilver cyanide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6533
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0765.pdf
General References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
  2. AshaRani PV, Low Kah Mun G, Hande MP, Valiyaveettil S: Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human cells. ACS Nano. 2009 Feb 24;3(2):279-90. doi: 10.1021/nn800596w. [19236062 ]
  3. Kim S, Choi JE, Choi J, Chung KH, Park K, Yi J, Ryu DY: Oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009 Sep;23(6):1076-84. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.06.001. Epub 2009 Jun 7. [19508889 ]
  4. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
  5. Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  6. Baselt RC and Cravey RH (1989). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. 3rd ed. Chicago, IL.: Year Book Medical Publishers.
  7. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for cyanide. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
  9. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1990). Toxicological profile for silver. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  10. Wikipedia. Silver. Last updated Dec 2014. [Link]
  11. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1977). WHO Food Additive Series No. 12: Silver. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Can act as a tumor suppressor.
Gene Name:
SDHA
Uniprot ID:
P31040
Molecular Weight:
72690.975 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
  2. Bolognesi M, Rosano C, Losso R, Borassi A, Rizzi M, Wittenberg JB, Boffi A, Ascenzi P: Cyanide binding to Lucina pectinata hemoglobin I and to sperm whale myoglobin: an x-ray crystallographic study. Biophys J. 1999 Aug;77(2):1093-9. [10423453 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHB
Uniprot ID:
P21912
Molecular Weight:
31629.365 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
  2. Bolognesi M, Rosano C, Losso R, Borassi A, Rizzi M, Wittenberg JB, Boffi A, Ascenzi P: Cyanide binding to Lucina pectinata hemoglobin I and to sperm whale myoglobin: an x-ray crystallographic study. Biophys J. 1999 Aug;77(2):1093-9. [10423453 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPPL2
Uniprot ID:
P10696
Molecular Weight:
57376.515 Da
References
  1. Gerbitz KD: Human alkaline phosphatases. II. Metalloenzyme properties of the enzyme from human liver. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1977 Nov;358(11):1491-7. [924371 ]
General Function:
Pyrophosphatase activity
Specific Function:
This isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Gene Name:
ALPL
Uniprot ID:
P05186
Molecular Weight:
57304.435 Da
References
  1. Gerbitz KD: Human alkaline phosphatases. II. Metalloenzyme properties of the enzyme from human liver. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1977 Nov;358(11):1491-7. [924371 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and normal and transformed fibroblast cells.
Gene Name:
CAT
Uniprot ID:
P04040
Molecular Weight:
59755.82 Da
References
  1. Kang YS, Lee DH, Yoon BJ, Oh DC: Purification and characterization of a catalase from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 grown under anaerobic conditions. J Microbiol. 2006 Apr;44(2):185-91. [16728955 ]
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. CO I is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Electrons originating in cytochrome c are transferred via the copper A center of subunit 2 and heme A of subunit 1 to the bimetallic center formed by heme A3 and copper B.
Gene Name:
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID:
P00395
Molecular Weight:
57040.91 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. Subunit 2 transfers the electrons from cytochrome c via its binuclear copper A center to the bimetallic center of the catalytic subunit 1.
Gene Name:
MT-CO2
Uniprot ID:
P00403
Molecular Weight:
25564.73 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Subunits I, II and III form the functional core of the enzyme complex.
Gene Name:
MT-CO3
Uniprot ID:
P00414
Molecular Weight:
29950.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I1
Uniprot ID:
P13073
Molecular Weight:
19576.6 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX4I2
Uniprot ID:
Q96KJ9
Molecular Weight:
20010.02 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This is the heme A-containing chain of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5A
Uniprot ID:
P20674
Molecular Weight:
16761.985 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX5B
Uniprot ID:
P10606
Molecular Weight:
13695.57 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A1
Uniprot ID:
P12074
Molecular Weight:
12154.8 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6A2
Uniprot ID:
Q02221
Molecular Weight:
10815.32 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B1
Uniprot ID:
P14854
Molecular Weight:
10192.345 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form.
Gene Name:
COX6B2
Uniprot ID:
Q6YFQ2
Molecular Weight:
10528.905 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX6C
Uniprot ID:
P09669
Molecular Weight:
8781.36 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A1
Uniprot ID:
P24310
Molecular Weight:
9117.44 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7A2
Uniprot ID:
P14406
Molecular Weight:
9395.89 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport. Plays a role in proper central nervous system (CNS) development in vertebrates.
Gene Name:
COX7B
Uniprot ID:
P24311
Molecular Weight:
9160.485 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7B2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF08
Molecular Weight:
9077.43 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX7C
Uniprot ID:
P15954
Molecular Weight:
7245.45 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8A
Uniprot ID:
P10176
Molecular Weight:
7579.0 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport.
Gene Name:
COX8C
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4L0
Molecular Weight:
8128.575 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione. May constitute a glutathione peroxidase-like protective system against peroxide damage in sperm membrane lipids.
Gene Name:
GPX5
Uniprot ID:
O75715
Molecular Weight:
25202.14 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Protect the extracellular space from toxic effect of reactive oxygen intermediates by converting superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen.
Gene Name:
SOD3
Uniprot ID:
P08294
Molecular Weight:
25850.675 Da
References
  1. Lee WG, Hwang JH, Na BK, Cho JH, Lee HW, Cho SH, Kong Y, Song CY, Kim TS: Functional expression of a recombinant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase of filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. J Parasitol. 2005 Feb;91(1):205-8. [15856906 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P07203
Molecular Weight:
22087.94 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested organic hydroperoxides. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide and linoleic acid hydroperoxide but not phosphatidycholine hydroperoxide, can act as acceptors.
Gene Name:
GPX2
Uniprot ID:
P18283
Molecular Weight:
21953.835 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione.
Gene Name:
GPX3
Uniprot ID:
P22352
Molecular Weight:
25552.185 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX6
Uniprot ID:
P59796
Molecular Weight:
24970.46 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
It protects esophageal epithelia from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It suppresses acidic bile acid-induced reactive oxigen species (ROS) and protects against oxidative DNA damage and double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
GPX7
Uniprot ID:
Q96SL4
Molecular Weight:
20995.88 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.
Gene Name:
GSR
Uniprot ID:
P00390
Molecular Weight:
56256.565 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Bolognesi M, Rosano C, Losso R, Borassi A, Rizzi M, Wittenberg JB, Boffi A, Ascenzi P: Cyanide binding to Lucina pectinata hemoglobin I and to sperm whale myoglobin: an x-ray crystallographic study. Biophys J. 1999 Aug;77(2):1093-9. [10423453 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Bolognesi M, Rosano C, Losso R, Borassi A, Rizzi M, Wittenberg JB, Boffi A, Ascenzi P: Cyanide binding to Lucina pectinata hemoglobin I and to sperm whale myoglobin: an x-ray crystallographic study. Biophys J. 1999 Aug;77(2):1093-9. [10423453 ]
General Function:
Phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation and cell death. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested lipid hydroperoxides. Essential for embryonic development. Protects from radiation and oxidative damage.
Gene Name:
GPX4
Uniprot ID:
P36969
Molecular Weight:
22174.52 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TED1
Molecular Weight:
23880.83 Da
References
  1. Kraus RJ, Ganther HE: Reaction of cyanide with glutathione peroxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980 Oct 16;96(3):1116-22. [7437059 ]
General Function:
Cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
COX7A2P2
Uniprot ID:
O60397
Molecular Weight:
11840.715 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.265 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Ubiquinone binding
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular Weight:
17042.82 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular Weight:
18610.03 Da
References
  1. Ardelt BK, Borowitz JL, Isom GE: Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication. Toxicology. 1989 Jun 1;56(2):147-54. [2734799 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
Molecular Weight:
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Lee WG, Hwang JH, Na BK, Cho JH, Lee HW, Cho SH, Kong Y, Song CY, Kim TS: Functional expression of a recombinant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase of filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. J Parasitol. 2005 Feb;91(1):205-8. [15856906 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular Weight:
60392.69 Da
References
  1. Laufer Z, Beckett RP, Minibayeva FV: Co-occurrence of the multicopper oxidases tyrosinase and laccase in lichens in sub-order peltigerineae. Ann Bot. 2006 Nov;98(5):1035-42. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16950829 ]
General Function:
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular Weight:
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Bolognesi M, Rosano C, Losso R, Borassi A, Rizzi M, Wittenberg JB, Boffi A, Ascenzi P: Cyanide binding to Lucina pectinata hemoglobin I and to sperm whale myoglobin: an x-ray crystallographic study. Biophys J. 1999 Aug;77(2):1093-9. [10423453 ]
51. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da