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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-01 14:54:49 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0796
Identification
Common NameTin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionTin is a trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71. (PubChem). Experimental studies over the last decade have suggested an association between thymus immune and homeostatic function and exogenous tin. It has been hypothesized that the thymus gland synthesizes and secretes one or more tin bearing factors that enhance immune defenses against malignancy and retard the gradual loss of immune capacity with senescence. (3). Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Inorganic tin salts are poorly absorbed and rapidly excreted in the faeces; as a result they have a low toxicity. Only about 5 per cent is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, widely distributed in the body, then excreted by the kidney. Some tin is deposited in lung and bone. Some tin salts can cause renal necrosis after parenteral doses. Mutagenic studies on metallic tin and its compounds have been negative. Long-term animal carcinogenic studies have shown fewer malignant tumors in animals exposed to tin than in controls. Human volunteers developed mild signs of toxicity with tin, given in fruit juices, at a concentration of 1400 mg per litre. The WHO 1973 permissible limit for tin in tinned food is 250 micrograms per kg. The adult daily intake of tin was about 17 mg per day in 1940, but it has now decreased to about 3.5 mg, due to improvements in technique of tinning with enamel overcoat and crimped lids to minimize exposure to tin and lead solder. (4).
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Metal
  • Natural Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Tin Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Sn
Sn(2+)
Sn(4+)
Sn(II)
Sn(IV)
Stanum
Tin flake
Tin powder
Tin(2+) ion
Tin(4+) ion
Tin(II) ion
Tin(IV) ion
Chemical FormulaSn
Average Molecular Mass118.710 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass119.900 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7440-31-5
IUPAC Nametin(4+) ion
Traditional Nametin(4+) ion
SMILES[Sn+4]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Sn/q+4
InChI KeyInChIKey=SYRHIZPPCHMRIT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as homogeneous post-transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a post-transition metal atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassInorganic compounds
ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
Sub ClassHomogeneous post-transition metal compounds
Direct ParentHomogeneous post-transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous post-transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceSilvery white metallic solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point231.93°C
Boiling Point2507°C (4544.6°F)
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-78063ee371f483449e69View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-78063ee371f483449e69View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-78063ee371f483449e69View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-8860d52d1d228364d3c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-8860d52d1d228364d3c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-8860d52d1d228364d3c8View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (6) ; inhalation (6) ; dermal (6)
Mechanism of ToxicityOrganotin compounds produce neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Organotins may directly activate glial cells contributing to neuronal cell degeneration by local release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, and/or interleukins. They may also induce apoptosis by direct action on neuronal cells. Organotin compounds stimulate the neuronal release of and/or decrease of neuronal cell uptake of neurotransmitters in brain tissue, including aspartate, GABA, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin. This may be either a contributing factor to or result of the neuronal cell loss. The immunotoxic effects of organotins are characterized by thymic atrophy caused by the suppression of proliferation of immature thymocytes and apoptosis of mature thymocytes. Organotin compounds are believed to exert these effects by suppressing DNA and protein synthesis, inducing the expression of genes involved in apoptosis (such as nur77), and disrupting the regulation of intracellular calcium levels, giving rise to the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species, release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and the proteolytic and nucleolytic cascade of apoptosis. The suppression of proliferation of immature thymocytes further results in the suppression of T-cell-mediated immune responses. Organotins are also endocrine disruptors and are believed to contribute to obesity by inappropriate receptor activation, leading to adipocyte differentiation. Inorganic tin triggers eryptosis, contributing to tin-induced anemia. (6, 1, 2)
MetabolismThough tin metal is very poorly absorbed, tin compounds may be absorbed via oral, inhalation, or dermal routes, with organotin compounds being much more readily absorbed than inorganic tin compounds. Tin may enter the bloodstream and bind to hemoglobin, where it is distributed and accumulates mainly in the kidney, liver, lung, and bone. Organotin compounds may undergo dealkylation, hydroxylation, dearylation, and oxidation catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the liver. The alkyl products of dealkylation are conjugated with glutathione and further metabolized to mercapturic acid derivatives. Tin and its metabolites are excreted mainly in the urine and feces. (6)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesTin is found in many alloys, such as brass, bronze, and pewter, as well as soldering materials. Tin metal is also used to line cans for food, beverages, and aerosols. Inorganic tin compounds are used in toothpaste, perfumes, soaps, food additives and dyes. Organotin compounds are used to make plastics, food packages, plastic pipes, pesticides, paints, and pest repellents. (5, 7)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsMetallic tin is not very toxic due to its poor gastrointestinal absorption. However, ingestion of large amounts of inorganic tin compounds can cause stomachache, anemia, and liver and kidney problems. Breathing or swallowing, or skin contact with organotins, can interfere with the way the brain and nervous system work, causing death in severe cases. Organic tin compounds may also damage the immune and reproductive system. (5, 6)
SymptomsInorganic or organic tin compounds placed on the skin or in the eyes can produce skin and eye irritation. (6)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB01960
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID10620886
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID32990
BioCyc IDCPD-8961
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDTin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTin
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Nguyen TT, Foller M, Lang F: Tin triggers suicidal death of erythrocytes. J Appl Toxicol. 2009 Jan;29(1):79-83. doi: 10.1002/jat.1390. [18937211 ]
  2. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
  3. Cardarelli N: Tin and the thymus gland: a review. Thymus. 1990 Jun;15(4):223-31. [2195720 ]
  4. Winship KA: Toxicity of tin and its compounds. Adverse Drug React Acute Poisoning Rev. 1988 Spring;7(1):19-38. [3291572 ]
  5. Wikipedia. Tributyltin. Last Updated 31 May 2009. [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for tin. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Tin. Last Updated 28 May 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular Weight:
39858.37 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular Weight:
39854.21 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular Weight:
39867.27 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH4
Uniprot ID:
P08319
Molecular Weight:
40221.335 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular Weight:
39088.335 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular Weight:
41480.985 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular Weight:
39723.945 Da
References
  1. Bychkov PV, Shekhovtsova TN, Milaeva ER: Inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by methyltin compounds. Bioinorg Chem Appl. 2005:191-9. doi: 10.1155/BCA.2005.191. [18365099 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
General Function:
Threonine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. This unit is responsible of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome and is one of the principal target of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. May catalyze basal processing of intracellular antigens. Plays a role in the protection against oxidative damage through the Nrf2-ARE pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PSMB5
Uniprot ID:
P28074
Molecular Weight:
28480.01 Da
References
  1. Shi G, Chen D, Zhai G, Chen MS, Cui QC, Zhou Q, He B, Dou QP, Jiang G: The proteasome is a molecular target of environmental toxic organotins. Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Mar;117(3):379-86. doi: 10.1289/ehp.11865. Epub 2008 Oct 23. [19337512 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis. In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner by recruiting chromatin complexes containing KMT2E/MLL5. Mediates retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis.
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular Weight:
50770.805 Da
References
  1. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence or presence of hormone ligand, acts mainly as an activator of gene expression due to weak binding to corepressors. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function.
Gene Name:
RARB
Uniprot ID:
P10826
Molecular Weight:
50488.63 Da
References
  1. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, acts mainly as an activator of gene expression due to weak binding to corepressors. Required for limb bud development. In concert with RARA or RARB, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RARG
Uniprot ID:
P13631
Molecular Weight:
50341.405 Da
References
  1. Grun F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signaling. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6 Suppl):S50-5. Epub 2006 May 11. [16690801 ]
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.
Gene Name:
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID:
Q16881
Molecular Weight:
70905.58 Da
References
  1. Bragadin M, Scutari G, Folda A, Bindoli A, Rigobello MP: Effect of metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase and the regulation of mitochondrial permeability conditions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:348-54. [15659816 ]
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Maintains thioredoxin in a reduced state. Implicated in the defenses against oxidative stress. May play a role in redox-regulated cell signaling.
Gene Name:
TXNRD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NNW7
Molecular Weight:
56506.275 Da
References
  1. Bragadin M, Scutari G, Folda A, Bindoli A, Rigobello MP: Effect of metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase and the regulation of mitochondrial permeability conditions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:348-54. [15659816 ]
General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Displays thioredoxin reductase, glutaredoxin and glutathione reductase activities. Catalyzes disulfide bond isomerization. Promotes disulfide bond formation between GPX4 and various sperm proteins and may play a role in sperm maturation by promoting formation of sperm structural components (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TXNRD3
Uniprot ID:
Q86VQ6
Molecular Weight:
70682.52 Da
References
  1. Bragadin M, Scutari G, Folda A, Bindoli A, Rigobello MP: Effect of metal complexes on thioredoxin reductase and the regulation of mitochondrial permeability conditions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:348-54. [15659816 ]