Canmetcon
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-01 21:03:42 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0798
Identification
Common NameFipronil
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionFipronil is a slow acting poison. When mixed with a bait it allows the poisoned insect time to return to the colony or haborage. In cockroaches the feces and carcass can contain sufficient residual pesticide to kill others in the same nesting site. In ants, the sharing of the bait among colony members assists in the spreading of the poison throughout the colony. With the cascading effect, the projected kill rate is about 95% in 3 days for ants and cockroaches. (2)
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Household Toxin
  • Nitrile
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organofluoride
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(RS)-5-amino-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4- (trifluoromethylsulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile
Fluocyanobenpyrazole
Termidor
Chemical FormulaC12H4Cl2F6N4OS
Average Molecular Mass437.148 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass435.939 g/mol
CAS Registry Number120068-37-3
IUPAC Name5-amino-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-trifluoromethanesulfinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile
Traditional Namefipronil
SMILESNC1=C(C(=NN1C1=C(Cl)C=C(C=C1Cl)C(F)(F)F)C#N)S(=O)C(F)(F)F
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H4Cl2F6N4OS/c13-5-1-4(11(15,16)17)2-6(14)8(5)24-10(22)9(7(3-21)23-24)26(25)12(18,19)20/h1-2H,22H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZOCSXAVNDGMNBV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as phenylpyrazoles. These are compounds containing a phenylpyrazole skeleton, which consists of a pyrazole bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassAzoles
Direct ParentPhenylpyrazoles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpyrazole
  • Trifluoromethylbenzene
  • 1,3-dichlorobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Sulfoxide
  • Trihalomethane
  • Sulfinyl compound
  • Azacycle
  • Carbonitrile
  • Nitrile
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Halomethane
  • Primary amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point200.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.0019 mg/mL at 20°C [TOMLIN,C (1997)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.538 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.4ALOGPS
logP4.49ChemAxon
logS-2.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.24ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area84.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity83.66 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0000900000-f562c603052e9b1cf559View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0004900000-9f31da92517ecaab9b63View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-2191000000-bdb48ae35693024eabbfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0000900000-d727fa54e3c5656179e9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0200900000-5e6ddc958202f2b2c0d6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00mo-4490000000-e1ad4fbd38d1a8f3a235View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityFipronil blocks the passage of chloride ions through the GABA-regulated chloride channel, disrupting CNS activity. (1) Organic nitriles decompose into cyanide ions both in vivo and in vitro. Consequently the primary mechanism of toxicity for organic nitriles is their production of toxic cyanide ions or hydrogen cyanide. Cyanide is an inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in the fourth complex of the electron transport chain (found in the membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells). It complexes with the ferric iron atom in this enzyme. The binding of cyanide to this cytochrome prevents transport of electrons from cytochrome c oxidase to oxygen. As a result, the electron transport chain is disrupted and the cell can no longer aerobically produce ATP for energy. Tissues that mainly depend on aerobic respiration, such as the central nervous system and the heart, are particularly affected. Cyanide is also known produce some of its toxic effects by binding to catalase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, hydroxocobalamin, phosphatase, tyrosinase, ascorbic acid oxidase, xanthine oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Cyanide binds to the ferric ion of methemoglobin to form inactive cyanmethemoglobin. (4)
MetabolismOrganic nitriles are converted into cyanide ions through the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver. Cyanide is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body. Cyanide is mainly metabolized into thiocyanate by either rhodanese or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase. Cyanide metabolites are excreted in the urine. (3)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID3352
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL101326
ChemSpider ID3235
KEGG IDC11099
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID5063
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC082360
Stitch IDFipronil
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID7777
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0798.pdf
General References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  2. Wikipedia. Fipro. Last Updated 15 May 2009. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for cyanide. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Cyanide poisoning. Last Updated 30 March 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Gaba-gated chloride ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB3
Uniprot ID:
P28472
Molecular Weight:
54115.04 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC500.028 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50106148
References
  1. Sirisoma NS, Ratra GS, Tomizawa M, Casida JE: Fipronil-based photoaffinity probe for Drosophila and human beta 3 GABA receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 Nov 19;11(22):2979-81. [11677140 ]
  2. Ratra GS, Casida JE: GABA receptor subunit composition relative to insecticide potency and selectivity. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Jul 6;122(3):215-22. [11489356 ]
  3. Chen L, Durkin KA, Casida JE: Structural model for gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor noncompetitive antagonist binding: widely diverse structures fit the same site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 28;103(13):5185-90. Epub 2006 Mar 10. [16537435 ]
  4. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Ratra GS, Casida JE: GABA receptor subunit composition relative to insecticide potency and selectivity. Toxicol Lett. 2001 Jul 6;122(3):215-22. [11489356 ]
  2. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRD
Uniprot ID:
O14764
Molecular Weight:
50707.835 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRE
Uniprot ID:
P78334
Molecular Weight:
57971.175 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9UN88
Molecular Weight:
72020.875 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital responsive element module of the human CYP2B6 gene and the CYP3A4 xenobiotic response element.
Gene Name:
NR1I3
Uniprot ID:
Q14994
Molecular Weight:
39942.145 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.37 uMNVS_NR_hCAR_AntagonistNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.59 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_24CellzDirect
AC500.53 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_48CellzDirect
AC505.14 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
AC500.59 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_24CellzDirect
AC500.53 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.76 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_24CellzDirect
AC500.57 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_48CellzDirect
AC500.76 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_24CellzDirect
AC500.57 uMCLZD_CYP3A4_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity
Specific Function:
Serine protease inhibitor. This inhibitor acts as 'bait' for tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase, protein C and matriptase-3/TMPRSS7. Its rapid interaction with PLAT may function as a major control point in the regulation of fibrinolysis.
Gene Name:
SERPINE1
Uniprot ID:
P05121
Molecular Weight:
45059.695 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_BE3C_PAI1_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CCL2
Uniprot ID:
P13500
Molecular Weight:
11024.87 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_SM3C_MCP1_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Chemotactic for monocytes and T-lymphocytes. Binds to CXCR3.
Gene Name:
CXCL10
Uniprot ID:
P02778
Molecular Weight:
10880.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_hDFCGF_IP10_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Cleaves collagens of types I, II, and III at one site in the helical domain. Also cleaves collagens of types VII and X. In case of HIV infection, interacts and cleaves the secreted viral Tat protein, leading to a decrease in neuronal Tat's mediated neurotoxicity.
Gene Name:
MMP1
Uniprot ID:
P03956
Molecular Weight:
54006.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_hDFCGF_MMP1_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor activity
Specific Function:
Acts as a receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Plays a role in localizing and promoting plasmin formation. Mediates the proteolysis-independent signal transduction activation effects of U-PA. It is subject to negative-feedback regulation by U-PA which cleaves it into an inactive form.
Gene Name:
PLAUR
Uniprot ID:
Q03405
Molecular Weight:
36977.62 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.44 uMBSK_BE3C_uPAR_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.42 uMCLZD_ABCB1_24CellzDirect
AC504.45 uMCLZD_ABCB1_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for the cytotoxic ligand TNFSF10/TRAIL. The adapter molecule FADD recruits caspase-8 to the activated receptor. The resulting death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) performs caspase-8 proteolytic activation which initiates the subsequent cascade of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases) mediating apoptosis. Promotes the activation of NF-kappa-B. Essential for ER stress-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
TNFRSF10B
Uniprot ID:
O14763
Molecular Weight:
47877.885 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.20 uMATG_DR5_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.10 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii distal enhancer sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
Transcription activator that binds to antioxidant response (ARE) elements in the promoter regions of target genes. Important for the coordinated up-regulation of genes in response to oxidative stress. May be involved in the transcriptional activation of genes of the beta-globin cluster by mediating enhancer activity of hypersensitive site 2 of the beta-globin locus control region.
Gene Name:
NFE2L2
Uniprot ID:
Q16236
Molecular Weight:
67825.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.75 uMATG_NRF2_ARE_CISAttagene
AC508.70 uMATG_NRF2_ARE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]