Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-02 21:21:03 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0801
Identification
Common NameDichlorprop
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDichlorprop is a chlorophenoxy herbicide similar in structure to 2,4-D that is used to kill annual and perennial broadleaf weeds. It is a component of many common weedkillers. About 4 million pounds of dichlorprop are used annually in the United States. (4)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Ether
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+ Or -)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid
(+ Or -)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid
(+-)-2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid
(+-)-2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid
(+-)-Dichlorprop
(2R)-2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid
(2R)-2-[(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)oxy]propanoic acid
2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy-a-propionic acid
2,4-D + dichlorprop (ester)
2,4-Dichlorophenoxy-.alpha.-propionic acid
2,4-Dichlorophenoxy-a-propionic acid
2,4-Dichlorophenoxy-alpha-propionic acid
2-(2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid
2-(2,4-(Dichlorophenoxy))propionic acid
2-(2,4-Dichloor-fenoxy)-propionzuur
2-(2,4-Dichlor-phenoxy)-propionsaeure
2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid
2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid
2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid
a-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid
Acide 2-(2,4-dichloro-phenoxy)propionique
alpha-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid
Alpha.-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid
Basagran DP
BH 2,4-DP
Campbell's redipon
Canapur DP
Caswell No. 320
Celatox DP
Celatox-DP
Cornox RD
Cornox RK
Cornox RK 64
Cornox RK extra concentrate
Cornoxynil
Desormone
Dichloroprop
Dichloroprop solution
Envert 171
Graminon-plus
Hedonal
Hedonal DP
Herbatox
Herbizid DP
Hormatox
Kildip
Mayclene
MSS 2,4-DP
Oxytril p
Polyclene
Polymone
Polytox
R-(+)-2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid
Seritox 50
Textrone m
Tri-cornox sprcial
U46 DP-FLUID
Ustilan NK25
Weedone 170
Weedone 2,4-DP
Weedone CB 1.3
Weedone DP
Chemical FormulaC9H8Cl2O3
Average Molecular Mass235.064 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass233.985 g/mol
CAS Registry Number120-36-5
IUPAC Name2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid
Traditional Name(+,-)-dichlorprop
SMILESCC(OC1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1Cl)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H8Cl2O3/c1-5(9(12)13)14-8-3-2-6(10)4-7(8)11/h2-5H,1H3,(H,12,13)
InChI KeyInChIKey=MZHCENGPTKEIGP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 2-phenoxypropionic acids. These are aromatic compounds hat contain a phenol ether attached to the C2-atom of a phenylpropionic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class2-phenoxypropionic acids
Direct Parent2-phenoxypropionic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2-phenoxypropionic acid
  • Phenoxyacetate
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • 1,3-dichlorobenzene
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organochloride
  • Organic oxide
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point122°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.35 mg/mL at 20°C [WORTHING,CR & WALKER,SB (1987)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.38 g/LALOGPS
logP3.13ALOGPS
logP3.07ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.95ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity52.71 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability20.91 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00lr-0290000000-47f6045622f1b0ed0183View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-2930000000-36cb4444e42220d8edadView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-2900000000-dc9e1ef71abf99817bb8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0290000000-dd659f39fc34ba438c3fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03e9-0940000000-820a445e6d46f09be9d8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-27642267b16dcefc91bfView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-1920000000-677b5256e04a2a1174bfView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityCDDs cause their toxic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and subsequently altering the trascription of certain genes. The affinity for the Ah receptor depends on the structure of the specific CDD. The change in gene expression may result from the direct interaction of the Ah receptor and its heterodimer-forming partner, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, with gene regulatory elements or the initiation of a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cascade that subsequently activates other transcription factors. The affected genes include several oncogenes, growth factors, receptors, hormones, and drug-metabolizing enzymes. The change in transcription/translation of these genes is believed to be the cause of most of the toxic effects of CDDs. This includes 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin's carcinogenicity is thought to be the result of its ability to alter the capacity of both exogenous and endogenous substances to damage the DNA by inducing CYP1A1- and CYP1A2-dependent drug-metabolizing enzymes. (1)
MetabolismCDDs are absorbed through oral, inhalation, and dermal routes of exposure. CDDs are carried in the plasma by serum lipids and lipoproteins, distributing mainly to the liver and adipose tissue. CDDs are very slowly metabolized by the microsomal monooxygenase system to polar metabolites that can undergo conjugation with glucuronic acid and glutathione. They may increase the rate of their own metabolism by inducing CDDs induce both phase I and phase II enzymes. The major routes of excretion of CDDs are the bile and the feces, though smaller amounts are excreted in the urine and via lactation. (1)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 344 mg/kg (Oral, Rat)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (5)
Uses/SourcesDioxins occur as by-products from the manufacture of organochlorides, the bleaching of paper, chlorination by waste and drinking water treatment plants, municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators, and natural sources such as volcanoes and forest fires. (1, 2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsIt is considered to be a severe eye irritant. There has been concern that chlorophenoxy herbicides including dichlorprop may cause cancer, and in 1987 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ranked this class of compounds as group 2B "possibly carcinogenic to humans". The EPA classifies the R-isomer as “Not Likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans.”(4) Exposure to large amounts of CDDs causes chloracne, a severe skin disease with acne-like lesions that occur mainly on the face and upper body. CDDs may also cause liver damage and induce long-term alterations in glucose metabolism and subtle changes in hormonal levels. In addition, studies have shown that CDDs may disrupt the endocrine system and weaken the immune system, as well as cause reproductive damage and birth defects, central and peripheral nervous system pathology, thyroid disorders, endometriosis, and diabetes. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is also a known human carcinogen. (1, 2)
SymptomsIn addition to chloracne, CDD exposure causes skin rashes, discoloration, and excessive body hair. (1)
TreatmentTreatment may include washing any areas of contact, GI decontamination if swallowed, administering an IV and forced alkaline diuresis. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID8427
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL573221
ChemSpider ID8120
KEGG IDC11020
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID75370
BioCyc IDCPD-7275
CTD IDC010571
Stitch IDDichlorprop
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID445
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0801.pdf
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1998). Toxicological profile for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. Wikipedia. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. Last Updated 19 May 2009. [Link]
  3. US Environmental Protection Agency (2009). Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Dichlorprop. Last Updated 6 May 2009. [Link]
  5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1998). Toxicological profile for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Cleaves collagens of types I, II, and III at one site in the helical domain. Also cleaves collagens of types VII and X. In case of HIV infection, interacts and cleaves the secreted viral Tat protein, leading to a decrease in neuronal Tat's mediated neurotoxicity.
Gene Name:
MMP1
Uniprot ID:
P03956
Molecular Weight:
54006.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_hDFCGF_MMP1_upBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.09 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]